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Author Topic:   Gods of Egypt
Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 14:40     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I thought we might start a thread on Egyptian mythology to run parallel with the one we have currently on the Greek myths. Everyone is invited to participate. Greek mythology has always been my major focus. In my opinion, though, since the story of Atlantis originally originated from the Egyptians, then was translated to Greek, both are needed to have a full comprehension of Atlantis. In this thread, I'd also like to investigate any connection between Atlantis and Egypt itself, both of which, of course, having long been linked together. Let us see if there is any factual basis for this link that has long been proposed.

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Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 14:41     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Egyptian mythology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Egyptian mythology (or Egyptian religion) is the name for the succession of beliefs held by the people of Egypt until the coming of Christianity and Islam.

The timespan involved is nearly three thousand years, and beliefs varied considerably over time, so an article or, indeed, even one whole book, cannot do more than outline the many entities and subjects in this complex system of beliefs. Egyptian Mythology is different from Greek or Roman Mythology, in that in Egyptian Mythology most deities are of human body and animal head or vice versa.

Afterlife
Egyptians believed they may in part survive to an afterlife. Egyptians believed that the soul (or the Ka (human personality)) could survive death if the body was preserved. Therefore, embalming and mummification was practiced. The weighing the heart occurred before proceeding to either the afterlife or the devourer.


Egyptian embalming
Main article: Mummification

Since preservation of the body was instrumental in keeping the Ka and Ba souls, embalming was developed by the Egyptians around the 4th Dynasty. The Priests' of Anubis would conduct the mummification process under the watchful eyes of Anubis. Since it was a stoneable offence to harm the body of the Pharoh, even after death, the person who made the cut in the abdomen with a rock knife was ceremonially chased away and had rocks thrown at him. All soft tissues like the brain and most of the internal organs were removed. The cavities were washed and then packed with natron, and the body buried in a pile of natron. The intestines, lungs, liver and the stomach were preserved separately and stored in jars protected by the four sons of Horus: Duamutef (stomach), Qebhsenuef (intestines), Hapy (lungs), and Imsety (liver). After coming out of the natron the bodies were coated inside and out with resin to preserve them, then they were wrapped with linen bandages. Important religious amulets and tailsmans were embedded within the linen.

The Ka could only return in a body that was well preserved. A damaged body could not be recognised by the Ka and this destroyed the chance of an afterlife. The fear of this led the Egyptian people to place great importance on the mummification process and the burial itself. This 'second death' could be used to take revenge on someone after death by destroying the mummy.

Other creatures were also mummified, sometimes thought to be pets of Egyptian families but more frequently or more likely they were the representations of the Gods. The ibis, crocodile, cats, nile perch and baboon can be found in perfect mummified forms.

[This message has been edited by Chronos (edited 08-11-2004).]

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Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 14:43     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Book of the dead
Main article: Book of the Dead

The Book of the Dead was a series of almost two hundred magical texts, hymns and illustrations recorded on papyrus, which were placed with the dead in order to ease their passage into the underworld. In some tombs, the texts have also been found on the walls. One of the best examples of the Book of the Dead is 'The Papyrus of Ani', created in 1240 BC. As well as the texts themselves, it also contains many pictures of Ani and his wife on their journey through the land of the dead.

Egyptians saw death as being the start of a perilous journey, rather than the end of life. In order to reach the land where the gods dwelt, and to live amongst them, they must first traverse the land of the dead. Each Book of the Dead was tailored to some extent for the individual who would be taking the journey. It contained the spells and hymns thought to be most appropriate to the life that the person had led, as well as the pleas and speeches that would be used to pass each test on the journey. Crucially, these included the test of the Weighing of the Heart.


The weighing of the heart
To the Egyptian, the heart notes all good and bad deeds of a person's life. It was the data that is analyzed in a ceremony, upon death, in a judgment for afterlife. The ceremony of the weighing of the heart occurred in the Hall of Judgement. The deceased is led into the hall by Anubis. The deceased's heart is placed on one scale pans and weighed against the Maat's feather of truth. Anubis then adjusts the scale's plummet. Thoth records the verdict. The deceased is taken by Horus before Osiris after a proper verdict if rendered in favor. A crocodile, lion, and hippopotamus shaped demon, the devourer (e.g., "Eater of Hearts"), destroys those that the verdict is against.


External influences
Egypt exchanged ideas with Libya during it's early unsettled period. Egypt was also influenced by the Greek Ptolemaic dynasties, which was to rule Egypt for 300 years. Cleopatra was the only Ptolemaic queen to rule on her own. Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire, and was ruled first from Rome and then from Constantinople (until the Arab conquest).


Libyan period
Main article: Libyan Egypt
22nd - 25th Dynasty

Egypt has long had ties with Libya. After the death of Rameses XI, the priesthood in the person of Herihor wrest control of Egypt away from the Pharaohs until they were superseded (without any apparent struggle) by the Libyan kings of the 22nd Dynasty. , The first king of the new Dynasty served as a general under the last ruler of the 21st Dynasty. It is known that he appointed his own son to be the High Priest of Amun, a post that was previously a hereditary appointment. The scant and patchy nature of the written records from this period suggest that it was unsettled. There appear to have been many subversive groups which eventually led to the creation of the 23rd dynasty which ran concurrent with the 22nd.

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Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 14:46     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Ptolemaic period
Main article: Greek Egypt
304 BC - 30 BC

Started with Ptolemy I of Egypt and ended with Cleopatra VII. As Ptolemy I Soter ("Saviour"), he founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, which was to rule Egypt for 300 years. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name "Ptolemy". Because the Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of marrying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. The last of the Ptolemies, the famous Cleopatra, was the only Ptolemaic queen to rule on her own, after the death of her brother/husband, Ptolemy XIII.


Roman period
Main article: Roman Egypt
30 BC - 639 AD

Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire, and was ruled first from Rome and then from Constantinople (until the Arab conquest). The most revolutionary event in the history of Roman Egypt was the introduction of Christianity in the 2nd century. It was at first vigorously persecuted by the Roman authorities, who feared religious discord more than anything else in a country where religion had always been paramount. But it soon gained adherents among the Jews of Alexandria. From them it rapidly passed to the Greeks, and then to the native Egyptians, who found its promise of personal salvation and its teachings of social equality appealing.


Monotheism developments
A short period of monotheism occurred under the reign of Akhenaten, and was focused on the Egyptian sun deity Aten. Akhenaten outlawed the worship of any other god and built a new capital (Amarna) around the temple for Aten. The religious change survived only until the death of Akhenaton's son Tutankhamun, but it was highly unpopular and was quickly reverted afterwards. In fact, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun's removals from the Wall of Kings are likely related to the radical religious change.

According to some Egyptologists, it is incorrect to regard this period as monotheistic. People did not worship the Aten but worshipped the royal family as a pantheon of gods who received their divine power from the Aten. Afterward, the original Egyptian pantheon survived more or less as the dominant faith, until the establishment of Coptic Christianity and later Islam, even though the Egyptians had encountered monotheism in other cultures (e.g. Hebrews). Egyptian mythology put up surprisingly little resistance to the spread of Christianity. Possibly its long history of collaboration with the Greek and Roman rulers of Egypt had robbed it of its authority.


Temples
temples as representations of the world...

Some temples today are still standing, which you can see in Egypt. Others are in crumbles from wear and tear. Pharaoh Ramses II built a lot of temples in his day.

Some known temples include:

Abu Simbel -- Complex of two massive rock temples in southern Egypt on the western bank of the Nile.
Abydos (Great Temple of Abydos) -- Adoration of the early kings, whose cemetery, to which it forms a great funerary chapel, lies behind it.
Ain el-Muftella (Bahariya Oasis) -- Could have served as the city center of El Qasr. It was probably built around the 26th Dynasty.
Karnak -- Once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes.
Bani Hasan al Shurruq -- Located in Middle Egypt near to Al-Minya and survived the reconstruction of the New Kingdom.
Deir el-Medina -- Temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period.
Edfu -- Ptolemaic temple that is located between Aswan and Luxor.
Kom Ombo -- Controlled the trade routes from Nubia to the Nile Valley.
Luxor -- Built largely by Amenhotep III and Ramesses II, it was the center of the festival of Opet.
Medinet Habu (Ramesses III Memorial Temple) -- Temple and a complex of temples dating from the New Kingdom.
Hatshepsut -- Mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri with a colonnaded structure of perfect harmony nearly one thousand years before the Parthenon.
Philae -- Island of Philae with Temple of Aset which was constructed in the 30th Dynasty.
Ramesseum (Ramesses II Memorial Temple) -- The main building, dedicated to the funerary cult, comprised two stone pylons (gateways, some 60 m wide), one after the other, each leading into a courtyard. Beyond the second courtyard, at the centre of the complex, was a covered 48-column hypostyle hall, surrounding the inner sanctuary.

The Nile
The river Nile gave life to the entire Egyptian civilisation. Its annual spring floods bringing water and rich nutrients to fields that would otherwise be swallowed up by the Sahara Desert. The river provided food, transportation, building materials and papyrus. Egypt's new year was deemed to begin at the flooding of the Nile. The river's course, from south to north, was seen as being in perfect harmony with the sun god Ra's daily journey from west to east in his boat across the ocean of sky. It was the Pharaoh's duty each year to influence the gods and bring forth the floods, as well as organising the building and repair of the irrigation systems. His success or failure as a ruler was measured by the prosperity brought by the Nile. The Nile itself did not play a major role in Egyptian religious beliefs. It was known simply as 'the river' and even the annual flood was given over to a minor god named 'Hapy'.

Futher reading
Schulz, R. and M. Seidel, "Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs". Könemann, Cologne 1998. ISBN 3895089133
Budge, E. A. Wallis, "Egyptian Religion: Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life (Library of the Mystic Arts)". Citadel Press. August 1, 1991. ISBN 0806512296
Harris, Geraldine, John Sibbick, and David O'Connor, "Gods and Pharaohs from Egyptian Mythology". Bedrick, 1992. ISBN 0872269078
Hart, George, "Egyptian Myths (Legendary Past Series)". University of Texas Press (1st edition), 1997. ISBN 0292720769
Pinch, Geraldine, "Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt". Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0195170245

External links and references
Hare, J.B., "Ancient Egypt (http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/index.htm)". (sacred-texts.com)
"Ancient Egyptian architecture: temples (http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/art/temple.html)". University College London.
O'Brien, Alexandra A., "Death in Ancient Egypt (http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/ABZU/DEATH.HTML)".
Telford, Mark Patrick, "Death And The Afterlife (http://www.the-telfords.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/egypt/afterlife.htm)".
Crystal, Ellie, "Ancient Egypt (http://www.crystalinks.com/egypt.html)". Crystalinks Metaphysical and Science
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_mythology

[This message has been edited by Chronos (edited 08-11-2004).]

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posted 08-11-2004 14:49     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Book of the Dead
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

There is also a Tibetan Book of the Dead, the Bardo Thödol.


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The Book of the Dead is the common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary text The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day. The name was invented by the German Egyptologist Richard Lepsius, who published a selection of the texts in 1842.

The name is somewhat misleading, as the "book" was nothing like a modern book. The text was initially carved on the exterior of the dead person's sarcophagus, but was later written on papyrus and buried inside the mummy case with the deceased, presumably so that it would be both portable and close to hand.

It constituted a collection of spells, charms and magical formulas for use by the deceased in the afterlife, describing many of the basic tenets of Egyptian mythology. They were intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death.

The Book of the Dead was usually illustrated with pictures showing the tests to which the deceased would be subjected, of which the most important was the weighing of the heart of the dead person against Truth. The god Thoth would record the results and a monster would wait in the wings to eat the dishonest heart.

The earliest known version dates from the 16th century BC during the 18th Dynasty (circa 1580-1350 BC). It partly incorporated two previous collections of Egyptian religious literature, known as the Coffin Texts (c. 2000 BC) and the Pyramid Texts (c. 2600-2300 BC), both of which were eventually superseded by the Book of the Dead.

External links
Budge, E. A. Wallis, "Book of the Dead (http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/ebod/index.htm), The Papyrus of Ani". (sacred-texts.com)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

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Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 14:50     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
History of Egypt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(Redirected from Ancient Egyptian)

HathorThe history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. The Nile valley forms a natural geographic and economic unit, being bounded to the east and west by deserts, to the north by the sea and to the south by the Cataracts of the Nile. The need to have a single authority to manage the waters of the Nile led to the creation of the world's first state in Egypt in about 3000 BC. Egypt's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Pharaonic Egypt was for so long an independent and self-contained state.

Once Egypt did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, and for 2,300 years Egypt was governed by foreigners: Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks and British. When President Nasser once said that he was the first native Egyptian to exercise sovereign power in Egypt since the last Pharaoh, Nectanebo II, was deposed by the Persians in 343 BC, he was only slightly exaggerating.

Egyptian history has been divided by this encyclopedia into six periods:

History of Ancient Egypt: 3000 BC to 332 BC
History of Greek and Roman Egypt: 332 BC to 639 AD
History of early Arab Egypt: 639 to 1517
History of Ottoman Egypt: 1517 to 1805
Egypt under Mehemet Ali and his successors: 1805 to 1882
History of Modern Egypt: since 1882
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian

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Papyrus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Papyrus is an early form of paper that was made from the stem of the papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus, which can grow to fifteen feet in height. Papyrus was first used in Ancient Egypt in 3000 BC, but by about 1000 BC, peoples from West Asia started to buy it from the Egyptians and use it for themselves since it was much more convenient than clay tablets. The Egyptians called it pa-per-aa which means property of Pharaoh denoting that the Egyptian Pharaoh owned the monopoly of papyrus production. The Greeks adapted the name and changed it into papure from which also the English word paper has been deduced.

The study of manuscripts written on papyrus, or Papyrology, is an essential tool for the historian of Classical Antiquity.

The triangular stems were cut lengthwise and soaked in water long enough for them to begin to rot. Several layers of strips were laid in different directions (usually perpendicularly) and hammered together while still wet, mashing the layers together into a single sheet. Because only one side of the sheet was used, the surface that was written upon was treated with sizing so that the ink would not bleed.

Scrolls were the initial use, but later the practice was to cut sheets from the rolls in order to form codices when the codex (or book) was invented. Papyrus is occasionally used for artwork, but watermedia can cause the papyrus to buckle.


Antique papyrusIn a dry climate, like Egypt's, papyrus is stable but storage in humid conditions will result in molding. The imported papyrus that was commonplace in Greece and Italy has since deteriorated beyond repair over time, but extraordinary papyri are still being found in Egypt – notable examples include the Elephantine papyri and the famous finds at Oxyrhynchus and Nag Hammadi. The Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, containing the library of Julius Caesar's father-in-law, was preserved by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, but has only been partly excavated.

In Egypt papyrus remained in use until 800 AD, when it was replaced by the cheaper paper, which was introduced there by the Arabs. In Europe the Holy See continued to use papyrus for official documents until 1100 AD.

In modern times, the technique of papyrus production was lost. It was only rediscovered in 1962 by the Egyptian engineer Hassan Ragab.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papyrus

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posted 08-11-2004 14:55     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Anubis
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Anubis, whose hieroglyphic name more closely translates as Anpu, is the Ancient Egyptian God of death and dying, and sometimes God of the Underworld. His mother is Hesat or Bastet with an unknown father, or Nephthys, and his father is variously said to be Set, Ra or Osiris. His daughter is Qeb-hwt, also known as Kebechet. In later times, Anubis was combined with the Greek god Hermes to form Hermanubis.

The center of his cult was in Cynopolis.

He has the head of a jackal or some other kind of dog, and the jackal is his symbol. The jackal imagery is related to Anubis' role among the Deities of Egypt, as the jackal is a scavenger and is strongly associated with death and dying. He was also know as the Guardian of the Dead. In art, he is depicted as a man with a canine head and alert ears, often wearing a ribbon and wielding a whip.

Anubis was originally the lord of the underworld, however following the rise of the cult of Osiris he becomes the gatekeeper. In the Horus story he stands down his position out of respect for Osiris in order to allow him to take over.

Anubis' role as gate keeper was primarily that of either holding or watching the scales with which the souls of the dead were weighted against the feather of Ma'at. If the soul was as light as the feather, Anubis led the soul to Osiris; otherwise, it was fed to Ammit.

In his embalming role, Anubis is known as Imy-ut ("he who is in the place where embalming occurs"). He guards the physical remains of bodies, as well as the tombs and necropoli.

Worship of Anubis is likely older even than that of Osiris. The Unas text (line 70) associates him with the Eye of Horus. In the Book of the Dead, he embalms the body of Osiris, wraps it in linens made by Isis and Nepthys, and protects the body by laying his bare hands on it.

Anubis is closely related to Ap-uat, another god whose symbol is the jackal, and who for many years was thought to be just another name for Anubis.

In Book xi of The Golden Ass by Apuleius, we find evidence that the worship of Anubis was maintained in Rome at least up to the 2nd century.

Anubis is worshiped today by some Neopagans.

Alternative: Ienpw, Anpu, Yinepu, Imy-ut

Papio anubis is the scientific name for the savannah baboon. The name is taken from Anubis because the baboon is commonly thought of as dog-headed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anubis

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posted 08-11-2004 14:56     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Bastet
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Bast as patroness of catsIn Egyptian mythology, Bast was a solar deity and a goddess of fertility and protector of pregnant women. She is also considered by some to be another aspect of Sekhmet. Her cult was centered in Bubastis. After the period of Hellenistic civilization, Bast was considered the daughter of Isis and Osiris and was associated with Hathor. She was the wife of Ptah, with whom she was the mother of Nefertum and Mihos. She was also the patron goddess of cats. Mummified cats were dedicated in her honor.

Alternative: Bast, Ailuros, Ubasti, Ba-en-Aset

Hesat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In Egyptian mythology, Hesat (also Hesahet, Hesaret) was a cow-goddess and mother of Anubis. She was the wet-nurse of the gods. Milk was said to be "the beer of Hesat."


[This message has been edited by Chronos (edited 08-11-2004).]

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Nephthys
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys is a goddess of the underworld, as well as childbirth. The name was also used as a title for the oldest woman in any household. She may have been another form of Bat or Neith.

In Egyptian art, her hair is similar to or the same as the cloth used to shroud corpses. She was depicted with a basket or a house on her head, and sometimes as a kite, falcon, hawk or other bird. She is a daughter of Nuit and Seb and the wife of Set, with whom she is the mother of Anubis. She is the sister of Isis, with whom she is often depicted.

Alternative: Nebet-het, Nebt-het

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephthys"

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posted 08-11-2004 14:59     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Osiris

This article is about the god. There is also an extrasolar planet named Osiris


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Osiris (also Usiris) is one of the most important of the Ancient Egyptian deities. He is a life-death-rebirth deity. He was eventually buried in the city of Abydos, of which he was the patron deity.


Egyptian Museum, Cairo
Osiris was the Egyptian god of the underworld, as well as a fertility and agricultural deity. With his wife, Isis, he was the father of Horus. Beb was described as his first-born son. Later, he was combined with Seker and Ptah to create Ptah-Seker-Osiris and was also identified with Heryshaf.

[edit]
Osiris and Isis
There are several versions of Osiris' life and deeds: the following is a basic summary:

Osiris was murdered by his brother, Set, who then chopped the body into smaller pieces. Isis and Nepthys, her sister, found the pieces (except his penis, which had been eaten by the Oxyrhynchus fish) and gave wax models of them to the priests to worship. Re sent Anubis and Thoth to mummify Osiris and Isis brought life back into his body. Afterwards, Osiris had to stay in the underworld and judge the souls of the dead and was called Neb-er-tcher ("lord of the outermost limit").

In Duat, the underworld, Osiris weighed the dead souls against the Feather of Truth. Souls weighted down by sin were devoured by Ammit and those who were light enough were sent to Aaru.

The Egyptian Ministry of Tourism website says that Orisis "once possessed human form and lived upon earth, and that by means of some unusual power or powers he was able to bestow upon himself after the death a new life which he lived in a region over which he ruled as king, and into which he was believed to be willing to admit all such as had lived a good and correct life upon earth".

The hieroglypic rendering of this God's name is still uncertain. Current thinking is that it is pronounced "aser" where the "a" is a glottal stop much as you still hear in the modern Arabic and Hebrew languages.

The mythos of Osiris, Isis, Horus and Set are among the most powerful in Egyptian mythology.

Osiris taught men how to farm the land and make wine and he was much loved by the people. Set was envious of his brother and so conspired to kill him. He secretly had a coffin made especially for his brother and then held a party inviting his unced that he would give it away to whoever it fitted. A few people tried the coffin, but alas they did not fit. Set encouraged his brother Osiris to try the coffin. As soon as he lay back the lid was slammed down and sealed shut! Set and his cronies carried the coffin to the Nile and threw it in, drowning Osiris. This action came to represent the annual flooding of the Nile.

Isis with the help of her sister Nephthys brought him back to life using their magical powers. Before revenge could be brought upon Set he struck again and this time dismembered Osiris into thirteen parts (some accounts say fifteen) and hid them thoughout the land. Isis searched the land for the pieces and spent many years doing so for Set had hidden them well, but she was not able to find all of them. The missing piece was his member, but she put together what she had and once again brought Osiris back to life.

This time she took no chances and kept him hidden until he had made her pregnant. Isis's magic could not keep him alive like this for too long and he died once more. The other gods decided to make him king of the underworld where he reigned over the dead but not before his death had been avenged.

The son of Osiris and Isis was Horus, who from birth sought to avenge his father's murder. He was brought up in secret in the marshes of the Nile delta. As soon as he was old enough the two met in battle. The fight was long and bloody; Horus lost one of his eyes in the battle and Set lost a testicle.

The conflict was brought before the rest of the gods. They decided in favor of Horus and gave kingship of the country to him. Set was condemned as the evil one and banished to the outlands. In other versions the two deities were reconciled and represented the union of Upper and Lower Egypt.


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Some information used in this article came from the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism's website at http://touregypt.net/osiris.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osiris

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Set (mythology)

Set in KV34Set (also Setekh, Seth, etc) was originally a god of strength, war, storms, foreign lands and deserts in Egyptian mythology. He protected desert caravans but also caused sandstorms. He was one of the Ennead and a son of Nuit and either Seb or Re. He was usually the husband of ‘Ashtart or ‘Anat (in Semitic mythology) or the Egyptian goddess Nephthys (with whom he was the father of Anubis). He was closely associated with the god Ash.

According to Herodotus Seth was a Berber god from origin. and some scholars think he is just the Berber god Poseidon

One of the more common epithets was that he was 'great of strength'. In one of the Pyramid Texts it states that the kings strength is that of Set. The Pharaoh himself was the heir to the two 'brothers' and united the offices of Horus and Set or of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Seth protected the sun (Re) as he journeyed through the land of the dead during the night. Most notably, he fought and killed Apep, the evil serpent of darkness who attacked Re each night.

Later, when his brother Osiris became a much more important god, Set gradually became thought of as his opposite. A new myth cycle developed in which Set kills Osiris in their struggles (see Legend of Osiris and Isis), so he became the god of evil.

He was also seen to be in contrast to Horus, who was a god of the sky, so his breath was responsible for the worms. Metal ore was called the "bones of Set" because they came from the ground. In the 3rd millennium BC, Seth (replacing Horus) became the patron god of the pharaohs, but as the story of Set's murder of his brother became popular, Horus was switched back.

Set is sometimes incorrectly thought of as being a jackal-headed god. He is depicted as having square ears, a forked tail and a curved snout. Some people believe the animal represented was an aardvark, a type of pig, or another as-yet-unidentiifed beast. In addition to the already mentioned animals, Set was associated with gazelles, donkeys, crocodiles and hippopotami.

The Greeks later linked Set with Typhon because both were evil forces that attacked the main gods, though they are not otherwise very similar. After Egypt's conquest by the Persian ruler Cambyses II, Set became associated with foreigners and particularly foreign oppressors, including the Achaemenid Persians, Romans, and Jews.


Other names
Setech
Setekh
Setesh
Seth
Seti
Sutech
Sutekh
[edit]
See also
Legend of Osiris and Isis
Temple of Set
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_%28god%29

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Chronos
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posted 08-11-2004 15:01     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Ra

This article is about the Egyptian god. In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Society Islands), Ra is an alternate spelling for Roua. Ra is also a character from the film Stargate. RA is also an acronym for Resident Assistant.
Ra (sometimes spelled Re or Rah -- also Atum) is the sun-god of Heliopolis in ancient Egypt. From the fifth dynasty (ca. 2400 BC) onward he was combined with the Theban god Amon to become the foremost deity of the Egyptian pantheon. He remained paramount for centuries except for a brief suspension during the time of Akhenaten (1350-1334 BC) when direct and exclusive worship of Aten, the sun disk itself, was imposed on the kingdom of Egypt. In later times, he was associated with Heryshaf.


A Pharaoh makes an offering to RaHe was also the father of Heget.

Ra is a self-creating god, fashioning himself from Mehturt, a mound (see Ogdoad) that came from the waters of Nu, or a lotus flower. He also created Shu and Tefnut out of his semen or mucus, Hu and Sia from the blood from his penis and humanity from his tears.

The sun is either the entire body of Ra, or just his eye. In Heliopolis (the capital of his cult), Ra was worshipped as Atum (the setting sun), Re-Harachte (Venus) and Khepri ("the rising sun"). He was later associated with Horus.

Though Ra and Atum ("he who completes or perfects") were the same god, Atum was used in distinctive fashions. He was primarily the symbol of the setting sun and was also a substitute for Ra as the creator of Shu and Tefnut from either masturbatory semen, (perhaps via autofellatio) or mucus. Atum was himself created by Ptah in some mythologies. Atum was the father of Hike.

Atum was the head of the Ennead and was represented by Mnewer, the black bull. He was associated with the snake, lizard, beetle, mangust, lion, bull, and ichneumon (mongoose).

Ra traveled through the underworld every night in a ship, and was protected (such as from the monster Apep) by Set and Mehen. During this journey, he was known as Auf or Efu Ra.

Hathor and Ra once argued, and she left Egypt. Ra quickly decided he missed her, but she changed into a cat that destroyed any man or god that approached. Thoth, disguised, eventually succeeds in convincing her to return.

Amon-Ra's identity with Zeus or Jupiter was acknowledged by the Greeks and Romans. The Greeks even gave the name Diospolis, City of Zeus, to Thebes. He was also associated with the Phoenix.

The symbols of Ra are a golden disk or the symbol ¡Ñ (Circle with a point at its centre), see Solar symbols.


Ra in modern fiction
In the Stargate movie and Stargate SG-1 TV series, Ra was an alien from the species called Goa'uld.

See also: Khepri


External links
Autofellatio and Ontology (http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/1326/ontology.html)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ra

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docyabut
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posted 08-11-2004 21:13     Click Here to See the Profile for docyabut     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Fit for a Pharaoh: 'fake' vase is 5,000 years old
By Alistair Keely
06 August 2004


An Egyptian vase that for 30 years was dismissed as fake by experts, was yesterday revealed to be genuine - and older than the Pyramids.

Tests carried out at York University have revealed the vase to be from a very early Egyptian burial dating back more than 5,000 years.

Experts believe the vase may be one of the earliest depictions of an Egyptian burial on a ceramic vessel in the world.

Decorated with an unusual burial scene, it had been considered a fake, as it was "too good to be true". The decoration on the vase shows a figure on a boat, lying on its back and curled in the foetal position. This is how some early Egyptians may have been buried before mummification was introduced.

Ceryl Evans, head of museums and arts for Harrogate borough council, said: "We had the vase analysed and York University's archaeologists said it was 5,000 years old.

"After that we had the paint tested and discovered it was also genuine and had not been 'improved' by the Victorians as some experts believed."

The vase will be on show at the Royal Pump Room Museum in Harrogate from tomorrow, as part of a small display of Harrogate's archaeological collections. The vase dates back to the Predynastic era around 3,200BC.

It is one of several hundred Egyptian artefacts from the private collection of Benjamin Kent, who lived at Tatefield Hall, Beckwithshaw, near Harrogate, until his death in 1968. He bequeathed his collection to Harrogate council. Mr Kent, who was a wealthy farmer and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, lived in a house filled with rare artefacts.
http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/story.jsp?story=548420



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dhill757
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posted 08-12-2004 02:48     Click Here to See the Profile for dhill757     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Thoth,
Djhuty, Djehuty, Tehuty

http://www.crystallotus.com/Thoth/Thoth.htm

Egytian myth has the great god Thoth. Origanlly from Atlantis, the great preist king fled with a close group of learned preist to Egypt when Atlantis sank into the sea . As there no records of what he looked like in Atlantis, he is now potrayed as an the baboon or the Ibis headed god of the Egyptians. Thoth's centre of worshiped was at Khmunu (Hermopolis) in Upper Egypt.

Thoth is the god who overcame the curse of the sun god Ra allowing Nut to give birth to her five children. with his skill at games.It was he who helped Isis work the ritual to bring Osiris back from the dead, and who drove the magical poison of Set from her son, Horus with the power of his magic.Thoth was Horus' supporter during the young god's battle with his uncle Set, helping Horus with his wisdom and magic.

When Ra retired from the earth, he appointed Thoth and told him of his desire to create a Light-soul in the Duat and in the Land of the Caves, and it was over this region that the sun god appointed Thoth to rule, ordering him to keep a register of those who were there, and to mete out just punishments to them. Thoth became the representation of Ra in the afterlife, seen at the judgement of the dead in the 'Halls of the Double Ma'at' or as is known in his tablets as the "Hall of Amenti".

The magical powers of Thoth"s 'Book of Thoth', which would allow a person who read the sacred book to become the most powerful magician in the world. The Book which "the god of wisdom wrote with his own hand". It was the stor of creation and man as he came into the earth plane. The story of the stars and the after life of man if chose to live bt the law.


A scribe to the gods, who kept a great library of scrolls. He was recorder of time.The spells in The Book of the Dead and the Book of Breathings, were written by him. He stood at the portal of the underworld helping or punshing as the deeds of men were.


Originally, Thoth was a god of creation, but was later thought to be the one who civilized men, teaching them civic and religious practices, writing, medicine, music and magic. It was Thoth who was thought to have taught men the mode and pronunciation of his writing - prayers and magic spells could fail if not intoned correctly - and so he was the master of magic. Later he incarnated as the great Magician Hermes .

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dhill757
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posted 08-12-2004 02:50     Click Here to See the Profile for dhill757     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

Tablet I: The History of Thoth, The Atlantean

I, THOTH, the Atlantean, master of mysteries, keeper of records, mighty king, magician, living from generation to generation, being about to pass into the halls of Amenti, set down for the guidance of those that are to come after, these records of the mighty wisdom of Great Atlantis.

In the great city of KEOR on the island of UNDAL in a time far past, I began this incarnation. Not as the little men of the present age did the mighty ones of Atlantis live and die, but rather from aeon to aeon did they renew their life in the Halls of Amenti where the river of life flows eternally onward.

A hundred times ten have I descended the dark way that led into light, and as many times have I ascended from the darkness into the light my strength and power renewed.

Nor for a time I descend, and the men of KHEM (Khem is ancient Egypt) shall know me no more. But in a time yet unborn will I rise again, mighty and potent, requiring an accounting of those left behind me. Then beware, O men of KHEM, if ye have falsely betrayed my teaching, for I shall cast ye down from your high estate into the darkness of the caves from when ye came. Betray not my secrets to the men of the North or the men of the South lest my curse fall upon ye. Remember and heed my words, for surely will I return again and require of thee that which ye guard. Aye, even from beyond time and from beyond death will I return, rewarding or punishing as ye have requited your truest. Great were my people in the ancient days, great beyond the conception of the little people now around me; knowing the wisdom of old, seeking far within the heart of infinity knowledge that belonged to Earth’s youth. Wise were we with the wisdom of the Children of Light who dwelt among us. Strong were we with the power drawn from the eternal fire. And of all these, greatest among the children of men was my father, THOTME, keeper of the great temple, link between the Children of Light who dwelt within the temple and the races of men who inhabited the ten islands. Mouthpiece, after the Three, of the Dweller of UNAL, speaking to the Kings with the voice that must be obeyed.

Grew I there from a child into manhood, being taught by my father the elder mysteries, until in time there grew within the fire of wisdom, until it burst into a consuming flame. Naught desired I but the attainment of wisdom. Until on a great day the command came from the Dweller of the Temple that I be brought before him. Few there were among the children of men who had looked upon that mighty face and lived, for not as the sons of men are the Children of Light when they are not incarnate in a physical body.

Chosen was I from the sons of men, taught by the Dweller so that his purposes might be fulfilled, purposes yet unborn in the womb of time. Long ages I dwelt in the Temple, learning ever and yet ever more wisdom, until I, too, approached the light emitted from the great fire. Taught me he, the path to Amenti, the underworld where the great king sits upon his throne of might. Deep I bowed in homage before the Lords of Life and the Lords of Death, receiving as my gift the Key of Life. Free was I of the Halls of Amenti, bound not be death to the circle of life. Far to the stars I journeyed until space and time became as naught. Then having drunk deep of the cup of wisdom, I looked into the hearts of men and there found I greater mysteries and was glad. For only in the Search for Truth could my Soul be stilled and the flame within be quenched.

Down through the ages I lived, seeing those around me taste of the cup of death and return again in the light of life. Gradually from the Kingdoms of Atlantis passed waves of consciousness that had been one with me, only to be replaced by spawn of a lower star.

In obedience to the law, the word of the Master grew into flower. Downward into the darkness turned the thoughts of the Atlanteans, Until at last in his wrath arose from his AGWANTI, the Dweller, (this word has no English equivalent; it means a state of detachment) speaking The Word, calling the power. Deep in Earth’s heart, the sons of Amenti heard, and hearing, directing the changing of the flower of fire that burns eternally, changing and shifting, using the LOGOS, until that great fire changed its direction.

Over the world then broke the great waters, drowning and sinking, changing Earth’s balance until only the Temple of Light was left standing on the great mountain on UNDAL still rising out of the water; some there were who were living, saved from the rush of the fountains.

Called to me then the Master, saying: "Gather ye together my people. Take them by the arts ye have learned of far across the waters, until ye reach the land of the hairy barbarians, dwelling in caves of the desert. Follow there the plan that yet know of."

Gathered I then my people and entered the great ship of the Master. Upward we rose into the morning. Dark beneath us lay the Temple. Suddenly over it rose the waters. Vanished from Earth, until the time appointed, was the great Temple.

Fast we fled toward the sun of the morning, until beneath us lay the land of the children of KHEM. Raging, they came with cudgels and spears lifted in anger seeking to slay and utterly destroy the Sons of Atlantis, Then raised I my staff and directed a ray of vibration, striking them still in their tracks as fragments of stone of the mountain. Then spoke I to them in words calm and peaceful, telling them of the might of Atlantis, saying we were children of the Sun and its messengers. Cowed I them by my display of magic-science, until at my feet they groveled, when I released them.

Long dwelt we in the land of KHEM, long and yet long again. Until obeying the commands of the Master, who while sleeping yet lives eternally, I sent from me the Sons of Atlantis, sent them in many directions, that from the womb of time wisdom might rise again in her children.

Long time dwelt I in the land of KHEM, doing great works by the wisdom within me. Upward grew into the light of knowledge the children of KHEM, watered by the rains of my wisdom. Blasted I then a path to Amenti so that I might retain my powers, living from age to age a Sun of Atlantis, keeping the wisdom, preserving the records.

Great few the sons of KHEM, conquering the people around them, growing slowly upwards in Soul force. Now for a time I go from among them into the dark halls of Amenti, deep in the halls of the Earth, before the Lords of the powers, face to face once again with the Dweller.

Raised I high over the entrance, a doorway, a gateway leading down to Amenti. Few there would be with courage to dare it, few pass the portal to dark Amenti. Raised over the passage, I, a mighty pyramid, using the power that overcomes Earth force (gravity). Deep and yet deeper place I a force-house or chamber; from it carved I a circular passage reaching almost to the great summit. There in the apex, set I the crystal, sending the ray into the "Time-Space," drawing the force from out of the ether, concentrating upon the gateway to Amenti.

Other chambers I built and left vacant to all seeming, yet hidden within them are the keys to Amenti. He who in courage would dare the dark realms, let him be purified first by long fasting. Lie in the sarcophagus of stone in my chamber. Then reveal I to him the great mysteries. Soon shall he follow to where I shall meet him, even in the darkness of Earth shall I meet him, I, Thoth, Lord of Wisdom, meet him and hold him and dwell with him always.

Builded I the Great Pyramid, patterned after the pyramid of earth force, burning eternally so that it, too, might remain through the ages. In it, I builded my knowledge of "Magic-Science" so that I might be here when again I return from Amenti, Aye, while I sleep in the Halls of Amenti, my Soul roaming free will incarnate, dwell among men in this form or another. (Hermes, thrice-born.)

Emissary on Earth am I of the Dweller, fulfilling his commands so many might be lifted. Now return I to the halls of Amenti, leaving behind me some of my wisdom. Preserve ye and keep ye the command of the Dweller: Lift ever upwards your eyes toward the light. Surely in time, ye are one with the Master, surely by right ye are one with the Master, surely by right yet are one with the ALL.

No, I depart from ye. Know my commandments, keep them and be them, and I will be with you, helping and guiding you into the Light.

Now before me opens the portal. Go I down in the darkness of night.
http://www.think-aboutit.com/Spiritual/tablet_i_the_history_of_thoth.htm

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dhill757
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posted 08-12-2004 02:53     Click Here to See the Profile for dhill757     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

The Emerald Tablets of Thoth The Atlantean

Translation by Doreal

http://www.marsearthconnection.com/etot.html

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguisable from magic."

~ Arthur Charles Clarke  ~ 

The tablets were written by Thoth, an Atlantean Priest-King, who founded a colony in ancient Egypt after the sinking of the mother country. The tablets, which are made of a substance that is imperishable and resistant to all elements, incorporates Thoth’s knowledge of the ancient wisdom and the secret records and instruments of ancient Atlantis. When the time came for Thoth to leave Egypt, he erected the Great Pyramid of Giza over the entrance to the Great Halls of Amenti and placed it in his records. Later, they were placed by a group of pyramid priests who were sent from Egypt when it was in great turmoil, beneath the alter of one of the great Mayan temples of the Sun God in the Yucatan...


Passages in 'The Emerald Tablets Of Thoth' which mention his 'spaceship' buried under the Sphinx...how to find it and other 'secrets hidden before ye were men', using the Pyramid & Sphinx, together and how he built the pyramid...

TABLET V: The Dweller of Unal

 TABLET XI - The Key to Above and Below

 TABLET I - The History of Thoth, The Atlantean

 Material aspect of the tablets.

They consist of twelve tablets of emerald green, formed from a substance created through alchemical transmutation. They are imperishable, resistant to all elements and substances. In effect, the atomic and cellular structure is fixed, no change ever taking place...Upon them are engraved characters in the ancient Atlantean language...The tablets are fastened together with hoops of golden-colored alloy suspended from a rod of the same material...

  Hall Of Records Is Not A Tomb

In the book "The Emerald Tablets of Thoth-the-Atlantean" there is some interesting commentary on the pyramids and the Sphinx which appears to correspond to a couple of passages in the 'Clues' & 'Story'. It states that the Sphinx sits on top of a great "ship of war" 

According to a well known British clairvoyant the Hall of Records is not a tomb but a UFO buried near the Pyramids. In due course this will be discovered and the records contained within will greatly enhancing knowledge of our true origins.


 Egyptians find tomb of ancient god Osiris

Click to view larger. GIZA, Egypt, Feb 16 (Reuters) -Sinking water levels have revealed a granite sarcophagus of the ancient Egyptian god Osiris in a 30-metre (98 feet) deep tomb at the Giza pyramids, Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass said on Wednesday.

Osiris was one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt who according to mythology was murdered by his wicked brother Seth. He was buried by Isis, his sister-wife, and brought back to life as judge of the dead and ruler of the underworld...

QUESTION: How does Hawass justify, again, the statement that Osiris was one of the most important mythical gods of ancient Egypt...yet he's found his tomb? Since when does a myth need a tomb?  What kind of game is he playing?

 Date: Mon, 25 Jan 1999 11:04:48 +0000 From: Ashley Rye Subject: Re: IUFO: "Osiris's Grave" Detected Near The Sphinx By Hawass

If this a stone sarcophagus, and a grave, as reported, then presumably there was a  human being buried there - but Osiris was a god,..unless we assume the ancient Egyptians made a practice of impersonating their gods, or representing them symbolically in funeral rites.

...is there any conceivable connection here with the (as yet unproven) claims of Larry  Hunter that a body, apparently in suspended animation, dressed in pink robes with the cartouche of Osiris, was removed, along with artifacts of an ancient advanced technology which were sold to JPL for seven million dollars? Does anyone recall a long article  about a so-called Hall of Osiris removed abruptly from Amargi Hillier's web site, after he was subjected to physical attacks and threats by three individuals, one military, in a dark alley in Cairo?...

...the official discovery of a water shaft, and now, apparently, the so-called tomb of a god, apparently a discovery sufficiently important to make Hawass weep, after we have been  informed that the Great Pyramid may in fact be closed to the public FOR GOOD....

And then we have the cryptic verses from the so-called Emerald Tablets, supposedly written by Thoth the Atlantean, who is said to lie in suspended animation in the  Halls of Amenti beneath the Great Pyramid?...I don't think we're being given a true  picture of events at Giza..."

 The Shaft, The Subway & The Causeway

 The Osiris Shaft

"This is the form of him whom one may not name,

Osiris of the mysteries,

who springs from the returning waters."


 Invocation of Osiris

"I am Osiris Onnophris who is found perfect before the Gods. I hath said: These are the elements of my Body perfected through suffering, glorified through trial. The scent of the dying Rose is as the repressed sigh of my Suffering. And the flame-red Fire as the energy of mine undaunted Will. And the Cup of Wine is the pouring out of the blood of my heart, sacrificed unto Regeneration, unto the newer life. And the bread and salt are as the foundations of my body, which I destroy in order that they may be renewed.  For I am Osiris Triumphant. Even Osiris Onnophris the Justified One. I am He who is clothed with the body of flesh yet in whom flames the spirit of the eternal Gods. I am the Lord of Life. I am triumphant over Death, and whosoever partaketh with me shall with me arise. I am the manifester in Matter of Those whose abode is the Invisible. I am the purified. I stand upon the Universe. I am it's Reconciler with the eternal Gods. I am the Perfector of Matter, and without me the Universe is not."


 THE EMERALD TABLETS OF THOTH

 TABLET V: The Dweller of Unal

...Into the spaceship I brought all my records, brought the records of sunken Atlantis.
Gathered I all of my powers, instruments many of mighty magic...
Deep 'neath the rocks, I buried my spaceship, waiting the time when man might be free.
Over the spaceship, erected a marker in the form of a lion yet like unto man.
There 'neath the image rests yet my spaceship,  forth to be brought when need shall arise.
Know ye, O man, that far in the future, invaders shall come from out of the deep.
Then awake, ye who have wisdom. Bring forth my ship and conquer with ease.
Deep 'neath the image lies my secret. Search and find in the pyramid I built.
Each to the other is the Keystone; each the gateway that leads into LIFE.
Follow the KEY I leave behind me. Seek and the doorway to LIFE shall be thine.
Seek thou in my pyramid, deep in the passage that ends in a wall.
Use thou the KEY of the SEVEN, and open to thee the pathway will fall.


See, also, TABLE XI -The Key to Above and Below for more regarding the pyramid.


 What Will Be Found Behind Gantenbrink's Door

A Prediction by Christopher Dunn

Suggested reconstruction of the technology behind Gantenbrink's Door. Click to view larger.

Explorations within the Great Pyramid have revealed, for the first time in modern history, the contents and features of the enigmatic Southern Shaft in the Queen's Chamber. What other discoveries will be found when the Egyptian government penetrates further into the Great Pyramid's ancient confines?...

In 1993... German robotics engineer, Rudolph Gantenbrink, who had been contracted to install ventilation fans inside the pyramid, received permission to design a robot to explore the shafts inside the Queen's Chamber...The robot, named Upuaut II (meaning opener of the ways) was equipped with lights, camera and laser pointer...What the robot revealed to the world was a termination point high in the body of the pyramid. The shaft came to a dead end and barring the way was a solid limestone block through which two mysterious copper fittings protrude...

It has been seven years since Gantenbrink made his discovery. He is quite clear that he could have continued his explorations, and we would have had knowledge of what is behind this door a long time ago...Egyptologist, Zahi Hawass, has indicated that the "door" will be penetrated and what is discovered revealed to the world. There have been several dates discussed, including the summer of 2000...

"If Khufu's mummy is found behind Gantenbrink's door, I will eat my words as well as my hat." -- Chris Dunn February 2000


 THE EMERALD TABLETS OF THOTH

 TABLET XI - The Key to Above and Below


Know ye that we of the Great Race had and have knowledge that is more than man's. Wisdom we gained from the star-born races, wisdom and knowledge far beyond man...

Know ye that in the pyramid I builded are the Keys that shall show ye the Way into life. Aye, draw ye a line from the great image I builded, to the apex of the pyramid, built as a gateway. Draw ye another opposite in the same angle and direction.

Dig ye and find that which I have hidden. There shall ye find the underground entrance to the secrets hidden before ye were men...

In trying to decipher Thoth's words, I came up with a couple of diagrams which may or may not be relevant. The lines aren't perfect, since the photo isn't a direct overhead view of the area. The above diagram shows the placement of the lines, using his words"opposite in the same angle and direction,"  as they relate to Khufu's pyramid. According to this version, the 'secrets' might be hidden anywhere between the lines, under Khufu's pyramid.

Then, there is the following information, linked below, which changes the scheme, a bit. 

"The ancient Egyptians called Khafre's [Chephren] 'The Great Pyramid' and that of Khufu [Cheops] 'The Pyramid which is the Place of Sunrise and Sunset'. There were originally only a couple of metres in height between these pyramids, but our Great Pyramid of Khufu is the taller, has a shallower angle of incline than Khafre's and encloses a greater volume..."

(draw ye a line from the great image I builded, to the apex of the pyramid, built as agateway. Draw ye another opposite in the same angle and direction)

This diagram is the same as the first one, but the lines are directed toward the center pyramid [Khafre's] rather than the one we call the 'Great Pyramid [Khufu's]. Since the Egyptians thought of the middle pyramid as Thoth's great pyramid, maybe that's the one we should be concentrating on when it comes to the 'Hall of Records' or 'secrets'. Have we been misled all this time.

It is said that Khufu's pyramid has a crystal device in it's base and was once topped with a golden capstone. Because of this, have we been, erroneously, assuming that Khufu's pyramid is the 'Great Pyramid' and therefore, holds the secret records too? 

Since Thoth wasn't specific as to which end of these lines would hold the 'secrets' it's possible it's the end where they meet. No matter which pyramid is used, the constant, on the above two diagrams, is the fact that the lines meet or intersect at the sphinx. In that case, maybe, he used the angled lines going toward the pyramids as a specific way of pinpointing the Sphinx as the 'record' holder.

Using another theory, which I've linked below, I came up with the next diagram.

"This indicates a spot on the eastern side of ‘Chephren’s pyramid beneath which may lie the Hall of Records, containing the ‘magic-science’ of Thoth, and if you complete the line, back to the sphinx (a subterranean causeway?) it forms an equilateral triangle, (a pyramid) sacred geometry. The gateway to Amenti, was guarded by the sphinx."

(draw ye a line from the great image I builded, to the apex of the pyramid, built as agateway. Draw ye another opposite in the same angle and direction)

In the diagram, above, the yellow and green lines are opposite each other and form the same type of angle but if Khufu's pyramid is used as a starting point for the green line, then they're going in opposite directions. If 'opposite' means to start opposite of the first line's origin, the Sphinx, that would be Chephren's pyramid and they would be going in the same direction. On completing these two lines, you'll have an equilaterial triangle, whereas, the lines in the first two diagrams would form isosceles triangles on completion. Since Thoth wasn't, exactly, specific any of these could be correct......or not.    

See, also, TABLET I - The History of Thoth, The Atlantean

 The Resurrection Machine

It was the hope of every Egyptian to be reborn after death, to attain an afterlife with the sun-god Ra and be resurrected with each sunrise, and to join with Osiris in the cyclical regeneration of nature and plant life with the receding of the annual Nile flood...

To understand the origins of the pyramids one must go back to the very beginning, the beginning of the world as the Egyptians saw it. For at this time there was only a watery void called Nun, which contained the essence of all creation. Out of this chaotic yet creative soup arose a mound, just as the mounds of fertile silt teeming with life emerged as the waters of the annual Nile flood receded. On that mound of creation appeared the sun god Ra-Atum, embodiment of life and goodness, the source of energy, light and warmth...For the Egyptians, creation unfolded not once, but continuously. By linking up with this cosmic cycle, they too could emerge reborn. The pyramid was essentially this mound of creation...

 THE EMERALD TABLETS OF THOTH


 TABLET I - The History of Thoth, The Atlantean


...Raised I high over the entrance, a doorway, a gateway leading down to Amenti.

Few there would be with courage to dare it, few pass the portal to dark Amenti. Raised over the passage, I, a mighty pyramid, using the power that overcomes Earth force (gravity). Deep and yet deeper place I a force-house or chamber; from it carved I a circular passage reaching almost to the great summit.

There in the apex, set I the crystal, sending the ray into the "Time-Space," drawing the force from out of the ether, concentrating upon the gateway to Amenti.

Other chambers I built and left vacant to all seeming, yet hidden within them are the keys to Amenti. He who in courage would dare the dark realms, let him be purified first by long fasting.

Lie in the sarcophagus of stone in my chamber. Then reveal I to him the great mysteries...

Builded I the Great Pyramid, patterned after the pyramid of Earth force, burning eternally so that it, too, might remain through the ages.

In it, I builded my knowledge of "Magic-Science" so that I might be here when again I return from Amenti...


 The Emerald Tablets of Thoth The Atlantean - Preface


The history of the tablets translated in the following pages is strange and beyond the belief of modern scientists. Their antiquity is stupendous, dating back some 36,000 years B.C.

The writer is Thoth, an Atlantean Priest-King, who founded a colony in ancient Egypt after the sinking of the mother country. He was the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, erroneously attributed to Cheops. In it he incorporated his knowledge of the ancient wisdom and also securely secreted records and instruments of ancient Atlantis.

For some 16,000 years, he ruled the ancient race of Egypt, from approximately 50,000 B.C. to 36.000 B.C. At that time, the ancient barbarous race among which he and his followers had settled had bee raised to a high degree of civilization.

Thoth was an immortal, that is, he had conquered death, passing only when he willed and even then not through death. His vast wisdom made him ruler over the various Atlantean colonies, including the ones in South and Central America.

When the time came for him to leave Egypt, he erected the Great Pyramid over the entrance to the Great Halls of Amenti, placed in it his records, and appointed guards for his secrets from among the highest of his people. In later times, the descendants of these guards became the pyramid priests, by which Thoth was deified as the God of Wisdom,

The Recorder, by those in the age of darkness which followed his passing. In legend, the Halls of Amenti became the underworld, the Halls of the gods, where the soul passed after death for judgment.

During later ages, the ego of Thoth passed into the bodies of men in the manner described in the tablets. As such, he incarnated three times, in his last being known as Hermes, the thrice-born. In this incarnation, he left the writings known to modern occultists as the Emerald Tablets, a later and far lesser exposition of the ancient mysteries.

The tablets translated in this work are ten which were left in the Great Pyramid in the custody of the pyramid priests. The ten are divided into thirteen parts for the sake of convenience. The last two are so great and far-reaching in their import that at present it is forbidden to release them to the world at large. However, in those contained herein are secrets which will prove of inestimable value to the serious student.

...a word as to how these mighty secrets came to be revealed to modern man after being hidden so long.

Some thirteen hundred years B.C., Egypt, the ancient Khem, was in turmoil and many delegations of priests were sent to other parts ofthe world. Among these were some of the pyramid priests who carried with them the Emerald Tablets as a talisman by which they could exercise authority over the less advanced priest-craft of races descended from other Atlantean colonies. The tablets were understood from legend to give the bearer authority from Thoth.

The particular group of priests bearing the tablets emigrated to South America where they found a flourishing race, the Mayas who remembered much of the ancient wisdom. Among these, the priests settled and remained. In the tenth century, the Mayas had thoroughly settled the Yucatan, and the tablets were placed beneath the altar of one of the great temples of the Sun God. After the conquest of the Mayas by the Spaniards, the cities were abandoned and the treasures of the temples forgotten.

It should be understood that the Great Pyramid of Egypt has been and still is a temple of initiation into the mysteries. Jesus, Solomon, Apollonius and others were initiated there. The writer (who has a connection with the Great White Lodge which also works through the pyramid priesthood) was instructed to recover and return to the Great Pyramid the ancient tablets.

This, after adventures which need not be detailed here, was accomplished. Before returning them, he was given permission to translate and retain a copy of the wisdom engraved on the tablets. This was done in 1925 and only now has permission been given for part to be published.

It is expected that many will scoff. Yet the true student will read between the lines and gain wisdom.

Now, a word as to the material aspect of the tablets. They consist of twelve tablets of emerald green, formed from a substance created through alchemical transmutation. They are imperishable, resistant to all elements and substances. In effect, the atomic and cellular structure is fixed, no change ever taking place.

In this respect, they violate the material law of ionization. Upon them are engraved characters in the ancient Atlantean language: characters which respond to attuned thought waves, releasing the associated mental vibration in the mind of the reader.

The tablets are fastened together with hoops of golden-colored alloy suspended from a rod of the same material...The wisdom contained therein is the foundation of the ancient mysteries. And for the one who reads with open eyes and mind, his wisdom shall be increased a hundred-fold.

Read. Believe or not, but read.

 The Secrets of Thoth

 Index

         


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cleasterwood
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posted 08-12-2004 05:46     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I've noticed Isis, who is a major player, isn't listed, so I took the liberty!

Isis
Isis, though worshipped all over Egypt, was specially venerated in certain cities, and the following are among the most common of her titles: --"The great lady, the God-mother, lady of Re-a-nefer; Isis-Nebuut, lady of Sekhet; lady of Besitet; Isis in Per Pakht, the queen of Mesen; Isis of Ta-at-nehepet; Isis, dweller in Netru; Isis, lady of Hebet; Isis in P-she-Hert; Isis, lady of Khebt; Usert-Isis, giver of life, lady of Abaton, lady of Philae, lady of the countries of the south," etc. From a list of title of the goddess collected by Dr. Brugsch, it is clear that Isis was called Usert, in Thebes, Aat, in Heliopolis, Menkhet, in Memphis, God-Mother, in Coptos, Hert, in Letopolis; and "Hent," i.e., "Queen," in every nome; and another important list tells us that Isis was called Ament, in Thebes, Menhet, in Heliopolis, renpet, In Memphis, Sept, in Abydos, Hetet, in Behutet, Hurt, in Nekhen, Thenenet, in Hermonthis, Ant, in Dendera, Sesheta, in Hermopolis, Heqet, in Hibiu, Uatchit, in Hipponus, Mersekhen, in Herakleopolis, Renpet, in Crocodilopolis, Neb-tept, in Arsinoe, That, or Tchetut, in Aphroditopolis, and Shetat, in Bubastis. Among her general titles may be mentioned those of "the divine one, the only one, the greatest of the gods and goddesses, the queen of all gods, the female Ra, the female Horus, the eye of Ra, the crown of Ra-Heru, Sept, opener of the year, lady of the New Year, maker of the sunrise, lady of heaven, the light-giver of heaven, lady of the North Wind, queen of the earth, most mighty one, queen of the South and North, lady of the solid earth, lady of warmth and fire, benefactress of the Tuat, she who is greatly feared in the Tuat, the God-mother, the God-mother of Heru-ka-nekht, the mother of the Horus of gold, the lady of life, lady of green crops, the green goddess (Uatchet), lady of bread, lady of beer, lady of abundance, lady of joy and gladness, lady of love, the maker of kings, lady of the Great House, lady of the House of fire, the beautiful goddess, the lady of words of power, lady of the shuttle, daughter of Seb, daughter of Neb-er-tcher, the child of Nut, wife of Ra, wife of the lord of the abyss, wife of the lord of the Inundation, the creatrix of the Nile flood."

From a number of passages in the texts of various periods we learn that Isis possessed great skill in the working of magic, and several examples of the manner in which she employed it are well known. Thus when she wished to make Ra reveal to her his greatest and most secret name, she made a venomous reptile out of dust mixed with the spittle of the god, and by uttering over it certain words of power she made it to bite Ra as he passed. When she had succeeded in obtaining from the god his most hidden name, which he only revealed because he was on the point of death, she uttered words which had the effect of driving the poison out of his limbs, and Ra recovered. Now Isis not only used the words of power, but she also had knowledge of the way in which to pronounce them so that the beings or things to which they were addressed would be compelled to listen to them and, having listened, would be obliged to fulfill her bequests. The Egyptians believed that if the best effect was to be produced by words of power they must be uttered in a certain tone of voice, and at a certain rate, and at a certain time of the day or night, with appropriate gestures or ceremonies. In the Hymn to Osiris it is said that Isis was well skilled in the use of words of power, and it was by means of these that she restored her husband to life, and obtained from him an heir. It is not known what the words were which she uttered on this occasion, but she appears to have obtained them from Thoth, the "lord of divine words," and it was to him that she appealed for help to restore Horus to life after he had been stung to death by a scorpion.

In the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead is found a Chapter (No. clvi.) which was composed for the purpose of bestowing upon the deceased some of the magical power of the goddess. The Chapter was intended to be recited over an amulet called thet, made of carnelian, which had to be steeped in water of ankhami flowers, and set in a sycamore plinth, and if this were laid on the neck of a dead person it would place him under the protection of the words of power of Isis, and he would be able to go wheresoever he pleased in the Underworld. The words of the Chapter were: -- "Let the blood of isis, and the magical powers (or spirits) of Isis, and the words of power of Isis, be mighty to protect and keep safely this great god (i.e., the deceased), and to guard him from him that would do unto him anything which he abominateth."

The symbol of Isis in the heavens was the star Sept (Sirius), which was greatly beloved because its appearance marked not only the beginning of a new year, but also announced the advance of the Inundation of the Nile, which betokened renewed wealth and prosperity of the country. As such Isis was regarded as the companion of Osiris, whose soul dwelt in the star Sah, i.e., Orion, and she was held to have brought about the destruction of the fiend Apep, and of his hosts of darkness by means of the might of her words of power. As the light-giver at this season of the year she was called Khut, as the mighty earth-goddess her name was Usert, as the Great Goddess of the Underworld she was Thenenet, as the power which shot forth the Nile flood she was Sati, and sept, as the embracer of the land and producer of fertility by her waters she was Anqet, as the producer and giver of life she was Ankhet, as the goddess of cultivated lands and fields she was Sekhet, as the goddess of the harvest she was Renenet, as the goddess of food which was offered to the gods she was Tcheft, and lived int he Temple of Tchefau, and as the great lady of the Underworld, who assisted in transforming the bodies of the blessed dead into those whrein they were to live in the realm of Osiris, her name was Ament, i.e., the "hidden" goddess. In this last capacity she shared with Osiris the attribute of "giver of life," and she provided food for the dead as well as for the living; as Ament also she was declared to be the mother of Ra. In fact, at a comparatively early period in Egyptian history Isis had absorbed the attributes of all the great primitive goddesses, and of all the local goddesses such as Nekhebet, Uatchet, Net, Bast, Hathor, etc., and she was even identified as the female counterpart of the primeval abyss of water from which sprang all life. From what has been said above it is manifestly impossible to limit the attributes of Isis, for we have seen that she possesses the powers of a water goddess, an earth goddess, a corn goddess, a star goddess, a queen of the Underworld, and a woman, and that she united in herself one or more of the attributes of all the goddesses of Egypt known to us.
http://www.touregypt.net/ISIS.HTM

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-12-2004 05:57     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Here is the most comprehensive list on all the Gods of Ancient Egypt that I have found on http://touregypt.net/godsofegypt/
There are several lists but this is by far the best one I've come across.

The Gods

Aken Ferryman of the Underworld
Aker Guardian and Gatekeeper of the Underworld
Am-Heh - Devourer of Millions
Ament Greeter of the Dead
Ammit Devourer of the Wicked
Amun and Amun-Re The King of the Gods
Anat Mother of Gods
Andjety A precursor of Osiris
Anqet The Embracer, Goddess of Fertility and the Nile at Aswan
Anubis God of Embalming
Anuke Goddess of War
Anuket Goddess of the Nile
Apep The Great Destroyer
Arensnuphis Anthropomorphic Nubian Deity
As Kindly God of the Desert
Astarte, Warrior Goddess of Canaan
Aten The Sun Disk and later God
Atum The All-Father
Auf (Efu Ra) An aspect of the sun god Ra
Baal, God of Thunder
Ba-Pef - The Soul
Babi - The Dominant Male Baboon God
Banebdjetet God of Lower Egypt
Bast Beautiful Cat-Goddess
Bat - Ancient Cow Goddess
Benu (Bennu) - The Bird of Creation
Bes Protector of Childbirth
Dedwen - Nubian God of Resources
Denwen - The Fiery Serpent
The Ennead The Nine Great Osirian Gods
Fetket - The Sun God's Butler
Geb God of the Earth
Gengen Wer - The Great Honker
Hapi God of the Nile River
Hathor Goddess of Music and Dance
Hatmehyt - The Fish Goddess
Haurun, The Victorious Herdsman
Heh and Hauhet Deities of Infinity and Eternity
Heqet Frog Goddess
Heret-Kau - She who is Above the Spirits
Heryshef, Ruler of the Riverbanks
Heset Goddess of Plenty
Hetepes-Sekhus - An Eye of Re
Hike God of Magic and Medicine
Horus King of the Gods on Earth
Hu God of the Spoken Word
Iabet, Cleanser of Re, Personification of the East
Ihy - The Child God
Imhotep Lord of Science and Thought
Ipy (Opet), A Mother of Osiris
Isis Queen of the Gods
Iusaas - Creator Goddess
Kabechet Helper of Anubis
Kek and Kauket, Deities of Darkness, Obscurity and Night
Khenmu The Great Potter
Kherty - Ram-headed God
Kephri The Great Scarab
Khonsu God of the Moon
Maat Lady of Truth and Order
Mafdet Goddess of Scorpions and Snakes
Mahaf - The Ferryman
Mahes The Lord of the Massacre
Male Child Gods of Egypt
Mandulis - The Lower Nubian Sun God
Mehen Defender of the Sun Boat
Mehet-Weret - Cow Goddess of the Sky
Menhit Lion-headed War Goddess
Mertseger Guardian of the Valley of the Kings
Meskhenet - Goddess of Childbrith
Mihos - Son of Bastet
Min God of Fertility
Montu, Warrior and Solar God
Mut Grandmother of the Gods
Nefertem Lord of the Sunrise
Nehebkau, the God who Joined the Ka to the Body
Nekhbet Goddess of the Power of Kings
Neith Goddess of War and Funerals
Nephthys Lady of the Wings
Nun and Naunet Gods of Chaos and Water
Nut Goddess of the Firmament
The Ogdoad The Primordial Creation Gods
Onuris The War God
Osiris Lord of the Dead
Pakhet The Strength of Woman
Panebtawy - The Child God
Peteese and Pihor - Brother Gods
Ptah The Creator
Qadesh - Goddess of Esctasy and Sexual Pleasure
Re (Ra) The Sun God
Renenutet Goddess of the Harvest
Reshep - The Syrian War God
Sah and Sopdet (Sothis) The Astral God and Goddess
Satet Goddess of the Inundation
Satis Guardian of the Borders
Sebiumeker - Meroitic God of Procreation
Sefkhet-Abwy - Goddess of Writing and Temple Libraries
Seker The Resurrected Osiris
Sekhmet The Eye of Ra
Sepa - Centipede God
Serapis the Composit God
Serqet (Selkis) Scorpion Goddess
Seshat Goddess of writing, measurements
Set God of Evil
Shay - Personified Destiny
Shesmetet - Leonine Goddess
Shesmu Demon god of the Win Press
Shu God of the Air and Sky
Sia - The Perceptive Mind
Sobek Guard of the Gods
Sons of Horus Gods of the Viscera and the Canopic Jars
Sopedu - The Border Patrol God
Ta-Bitjet - A Wife of Horus
Tasenetnofret - The Good Sister
Taweret Goddess Demoness of Birth
Tayet - Goddess of Weaving
Tefnut Goddess of Moisture
Tatenen - "Father of Gods" and the God of the Rising Earth
Thoth God of Wisdom
Wadj Wer - The Pregnant God
Wadjet The Serpent Goddess
Weneg - Ancient Son of Re
Wepwawet (Upuaut) The Opener of the Ways
Wosret - Goddess of Thebes
Yah - Another Moon God
Yamm - God of the Sea

If you'll take great notice you can begin to see areas where comparisons to Greek gods may work. Some of these gods are very obscure which leaves much room for interpretation of counter-culture links. In paranethesis, I have put what I feel are the closest links of the more obscure gods.)
The very last one is so obscure that people have thought that there was noone to equate to Poseidon except possibly Ptah - the Earth Shaker/ Father God but as we clearly see, this is not the case any longer. Each god plays so many different roles that no matter where you go you will find out something new about them.

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docyabut
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posted 08-12-2004 07:27     Click Here to See the Profile for docyabut     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Drill, the Emerald Tablets?

(The writer (who has a connection with the Great White Lodge which also works through the pyramid priesthood) was instructed to recover and return to the Great Pyramid the ancient tablets.

This, after adventures which need not be detailed here, was accomplished. Before returning them, he was given permission to translate and retain a copy of the wisdom engraved on the tablets.

This was done in 1925 and only now has permission been given for part to be published. It is expected that many will scoff. Yet the true student will read between the lines and gain wisdom.)

Was instructed to recover and return to the Great Pyramid the ancient tablets, in 1925?
Not likey. for nothing was ever proven or publish about this event world wide.


I find it interesting that before Egyptian mummifiaction, they were buried in boats in a fetal position. When they uncoverd that tomb last year of who they thought was the over seer of the big pyramids, the person was not mummfied, but lain on his side in a fetal position.

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docyabut
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posted 08-12-2004 17:57     Click Here to See the Profile for docyabut     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
opps forgot the link

http://www.crystalinks.com/emeraldpreface.html

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dhill757
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posted 08-12-2004 18:49     Click Here to See the Profile for dhill757     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Docyabut,

I'm going to look into this and see what I can find out about the actual discovery and what Egyptology has to say about it..! You might notice there is a big gap in how old the Egyptians say their history is and what Egyptologists give them credit for.

quote:
The history of the tablets translated in the following pages is strange and beyond the belief of modern scientists. Their antiquity is stupendous, dating back some 36,000 years B.C. The writer is Thoth, an Atlantean Priest-King, who founded a colony in ancient Egypt after the sinking of the mother country.

He was the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza, erroneously attributed to Cheops. In it he incorporated his knowledge of the ancient wisdom and also securely secreted records and instruments of ancient Atlantis.

For some 16,000 years, he ruled the ancient race of Egypt, from approximately 52,000 B.C. to 36,000 B.C. At that time, the ancient barbarous race among which he and his followers had settled had been raised to a high degree of civilization.

Thoth was an immortal, that is, he had conquered death, passing only when he willed and even then not through death. His vast wisdom made him ruler over the various Atlantean colonies, including the ones in South and Central America.

When the time came for him to leave Egypt, he erected the Great Pyramid over the entrance to the Great Halls of Amenti, placed in it his records, and appointed guards for his secrets from among the highest of his people.


Cleasterwood, any thoughts about the tablets..? You handled Isis, I noticed no one has done Ptah!

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-13-2004 06:15     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Ask and yea shall receive:
Ptah
Patron of: creation, craftsmen, artisans.

Appearance: A man with a punt beard, wrapped up like a mummy, but with his hands free which grip a great staff made up of the symbols for life, stability, and power. Sometimes he wears a skullcap crown and stands on the hieroglyph for Maat.

Description: In the Memphite theology, Ptah is the primal creator, the first of all the gods, creator of the world and all that is in it. He is not created, but simply is. In some stories he is the personification of the primal matter, Ta-Tenen, which rose out of Nun, the fundamental seas. His wife is said to be Bast (or Sakhmet) and their children are Nefertem, Mahes, and Imhotep.

Ptah's importance may be discerned when one learns that "Egypt" is a Greek corruption of the phrase "Het-Ka-Ptah," or "House of the Spirit of Ptah."

Worship: Worshipped throughout all of Egypt, his cult centers were Memphis and Heliopolis.

Variants:

Ptah-Seker-Osiris
A composite funerary god worshipped during the Middle Kingdom period. In this form he represents the three aspects of the universe: creation, stability, and death.

Read also:
Ptah (Pteh, Peteh) was the predynastic Mennefer (Hikuptah, Memphis) god of craftsmen, pottery and creation. The Egyptians believed that he was a god who created everything from artifacts to the world egg to the other deities themselves. The Opening of the Mouth ceremony was believed to have been devised by him. He was a god of creation and rebirth.

Ptah was usually depicted as a bearded mummiform man, wearing a close fitting skull cap. Only his hands come out of his shroud, and he was usually shown holding a staff that incorporated the djed pillar, the ankh symbol and the was scepter.

The origin of Ptah's name is unclear, though some believe it to mean 'opener' or 'sculptor'. As a god of craftsmen, the later is probably correct. He was a patron of the arts, protector of stonecutters, sculptors, blacksmiths, architects, boat builders, artists and craftsmen. His high priest was given the title wr khrp hmw, 'Great Leader of Craftsmen', and his priests were probably linked to the different crafts.

It was believed that Ptah invented masonry and that it was he who crafted the boats that the dead used to travel to the Duat. The Book of the Dead describes him as:

...a master architect, and framer of everything in the universe...

-- Egypt - Myths and Legends, Lewis Spence

It was believed that Ptah created the heavens and the earth while Khnum fashioned the animals and people on his pottery wheel. Ptah created the giant metal plate that was believed to be the floor of heaven and the roof of the sky, he also created the struts that upheld it. He created the universe by speaking words through his Tongue (linked to the god Thoth and the goddess Tefnut) and by thoughts coming from his Heart (linked to Horus the Elder).

There came into being as the heart and there came into being as the tongue ... in the form of Atem. The mighty Great One is Ptah, who transmitted [life to all gods], as well as (to) their kas... (Thus) it happened that the heart and tongue gained control over [every] (other) member of the body, by teaching that he [i.e., Ptah] is in every body and in every mouth of all gods, all men, [all] cattle, all creeping things, and (every thing) that lives, by thinking and commanding everything that he wishes... Thus all the gods were formed and his Ennead was completed. Indeed, all the divine order really came into being through what the heart thought and the tongue commanded. Thus the ka-spirits were made... by this speech... Thus were made all work and all crafts, the action of the arms, the movement of the legs, and the activity of every member, in conformance with (this) command which the heart thought, which came forth through the tongue, and which gives value to everything.

-- Primal Myths, Barbara C. Sproul

Not only was Ptah a god of creation, but he was involved with the soul's rebirth in the afterlife. He was related to the dead since Old Kingdom times, where he was believed to have invented the Opening of the Mouth ritual to allow the spirit to be able to see, hear, speak and eat as a living being.

The Osiris Ani [whose word is truth, saith]:- I eat bread. I drink ale. I gird up my garments. I fly like a hawk. I cackle like the Smen goose. I alight upon that place hard by the Sepulchre on the festival of the Great God. That which is abominable, that which is abominable I will not eat. [An abominable thing] is filth, I will not eat thereof. That which is an abomination unto my ka shall not enter my body. I will live upon that whereon live the gods and the Spirit-souls. I shall live, and I shall be master of their cakes. I am master of them, and I shall eat them under the trees of the dweller in the House of Hathor, my Lady. I will make an offering. My cakes are in Tetu, my offerings are in Anu. I gird about myself the robe which is woven for me by the goddess Tait. I shall stand up and sit down in whatsoever place it pleaseth me to do so. My head is like unto that of Ra. I am gathered together like Atem.

Here offer the four cakes of Ra, and the offerings of the earth. I shall come forth. My tongue is like that of Ptah, and my throat is like unto that of Hathor, and I remember the words of Atem, of my father, with my mouth. He forced the woman, the wife of Geb, breaking the heads near him; therefore was the fear of him there. [His] praises are repeated with vigor. I am decreed to be the Heir, the lord of the earth of Geb. I have union with women. Geb hath refreshed me, and he hath caused me to ascend his throne. Those who dwell in Anu bow their heads to me. I am [their] Bull, I am stronger than [the Lord] of the hour. I unite with women. I am master for millions of years.

-- The Chapter of Making the Transformation into Ptah, The Book of the Dead

Ptah was also a miracle worker. It was believed that Ptah saved the town of Pelusium from Assyrian invaders with an army of rats. Ptah ordered the rats to sneak into the camp of the Assyrians and gnaw through the bowstrings and shield handles of the enemy. Without weaponry or defense, the Assyrian army fled. It was also said that he stopped a fight between Horus and Set:

He judged between Heru and Set; he ended their quarrel. He made Set the king of Upper Egypt in the land of Upper Egypt, up to the place in which he was born, which is Su. And Geb made Horus King of Lower Egypt in the land of Lower Egypt, up to the place in which his father was drowned which is "Division-of-the-Two-Lands." Thus Horus stood over one region, and Set stood over one region. They made peace over the Two Lands at Ayan. That was the division of the Two Lands.


-- The Shabaka Stone

The Apis bull was regarded as the Ba of Ptah while it was living. The bull's main sanctuary was near the temple of Ptah in Mennefer, near the bull's embalming house where he became linked to Osiris after death. Herodotus wrote that the Apis bull was conceived from a bolt of lightning, it was black with a while diamond on his forehead, the image of a vulture on his back, double hairs on his tail and a scarab mark under his tongue. The lightning was thought by the Egyptians to be Ptah in the form of a celestial fire, who mated with a heifer. With a creation god as his father, the bull was believed to be a fertility symbol. The heifer that produced the bull was venerated as a form of the goddess Isis. There was only one Apis bull at a time, and the cult of the Apis bull started at the beginning of Egyptian history. While alive, the bull was known as the 'Spokesman' of Ptah and his 'Glorious Soul'.

He was married to either Bast, Sekhmet or Wadjet. His union with Bast was thought to have produced a lion-headed god called Mihos, while Nefertem was his son by either Sekhmet or Wadjet. Different towns believed that Ptah was married to their goddess, and thus the confusion with his family ties. Mennefer had a triad consisting of Ptah, Sekhmet and Nefertem. The architect of the Saqqara Step Pyramid, Imhotep, after he became deified came to be regarded as the son of Ptah. As father and creator of the gods, the deities he created first were Nun and Naunet and the nine gods of the Ennead. The nine were Tem, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys who were considered to be both the teeth and lips of the mouth of Ptah and the semen and the hands of Tem.

He was linked to two other Mennefer gods - Ta-tenen and Sokar. Ta-tenen (known as Ptah-Ta-tenen when the two were combined) was an earth god connected with the primeval mound as it rose from the waters of Nun while Sokar was a god of the necropolis. This reinforced Ptah's aspects of a god of creation and a god of the dead. Ptah-Sokar was also connected with Osiris, and known as Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Statues of the three-in-one god showed a mummiform man wearing the sun disk, corkscrew ram horns and long plumes or the atef crown. These statues often contained a copy of spells from The Book of the Dead.

Ptah was a creator god, the third highest god in Egypt. He was the god presiding over the Second Egyptian month, known as Paopi by Greek times. From a local god of craftsmen to the deity who crafted the universe and the other deities, Ptah was only overshadowed by the sun god Ra, and the hidden god Amen. He fashioned the universe through words of power and by thought, as well as creating different parts by hand. He helped the dead on their travels through the afterlife, allowing them to transform into his divine figure, or by building the boats on which they could travel. He was the one who allowed the dead to be like the living after death with the Opening of the Mouth ceremony. The Apis bull was his sacred animal, more of a representation of his soul on earth who gave fertility and rebirth to the people. He was an ancient god who the Egyptians worshiped through their long history.

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-13-2004 06:16     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
At this time though, my 3 year old is kicking me off the PC. I will discuss my opinions on the Emerald Tablets at a later time as I am still reading over them.

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Chronos
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posted 08-13-2004 14:27     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Excellent contributions, people!

Karnak
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Karnak is a village in Egypt that was once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes. It is situated about 2 miles north of Luxor.

For many centuries Karnak temple was the main religious centre of Egypt, with each Pharaoh adding to or altering the complex. It was the main temple for the cult of Amon, but like many other Egyptian temples, other gods and goddesses were worshipped there. The temple now has a daily Sound and Light show, which gives an insight into the history of this sacred site.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karnak

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Chronos
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posted 08-13-2004 14:37     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Temples
temples as representations of the world...

Some temples today are still standing, which you can see in Egypt. Others are in crumbles from wear and tear. Pharaoh Ramses II built a lot of temples in his day.

Some known temples include:

Abu Simbel -- Complex of two massive rock temples in southern Egypt on the western bank of the Nile.
Abydos (Great Temple of Abydos) -- Adoration of the early kings, whose cemetery, to which it forms a great funerary chapel, lies behind it.
Ain el-Muftella (Bahariya Oasis) -- Could have served as the city center of El Qasr. It was probably built around the 26th Dynasty.
Karnak -- Once part of the ancient capital of Egypt, Thebes.
Bani Hasan al Shurruq -- Located in Middle Egypt near to Al-Minya and survived the reconstruction of the New Kingdom.
Deir el-Medina -- Temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period.
Edfu -- Ptolemaic temple that is located between Aswan and Luxor.
Kom Ombo -- Controlled the trade routes from Nubia to the Nile Valley.
Luxor -- Built largely by Amenhotep III and Ramesses II, it was the center of the festival of Opet.
Medinet Habu (Ramesses III Memorial Temple) -- Temple and a complex of temples dating from the New Kingdom.
Hatshepsut -- Mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri with a colonnaded structure of perfect harmony nearly one thousand years before the Parthenon.
Philae -- Island of Philae with Temple of Aset which was constructed in the 30th Dynasty.
Ramesseum (Ramesses II Memorial Temple) -- The main building, dedicated to the funerary cult, comprised two stone pylons (gateways, some 60 m wide), one after the other, each leading into a courtyard. Beyond the second courtyard, at the centre of the complex, was a covered 48-column hypostyle hall, surrounding the inner sanctuary.

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Riven
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posted 08-14-2004 02:07     Click Here to See the Profile for Riven     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-16-2004 08:26     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Wonderful research on the Gods. Now if we can correlate them into some of comparison to the Gods in Plato's account maybe we'd have something as I believe that the story of Atlantis should be told from their prespective.

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-17-2004 11:59     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Nieth is an important player in the war between Athens and Atlantis so it's only fitting to add her to this list.
Nit (Net, Neit, Neith) was the predynastic goddess of war and weaving, the goddess of the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the patron goddess of Zau (Sau, Sai, Sais) in the Delta. In later times she was also thought to have been an androgynous demiurge - a creation deity - who had both male and female attributes. The Egyptians believed her to be an ancient and wise goddess, to whom the other gods came if they could not resolve their own disputes.

Generally depicted as a woman, Nit was shown either wearing her emblem - either a shield crossed with two arrows, or a weaving shuttle - or the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. Nit was probably linked with the crown of Lower Egypt due to the similarities between her name, and the name of the crown - nt . Similarly, her name was linked to the root of the word for 'weave' - ntt (which is also the root for the word 'being'). She was also often shown carrying a bow and arrows, linking her to hunting and warfare, or a sceptre and sceptre and the ankh sign of life. She was also shown in the form of a cow, though this was very rare.

In late dynastic times there is no doubt that Nit was regarded as nothing but a form of Hathor, but at an earlier period she was certainly a personification of a form of the great, inert, primeval watery mass out of which sprang the sun god Ra...

-- The Gods of the Egyptians, E. A. Wallis Budge

As the mother of Ra, the Egyptians believed her to be connected with the god of the watery primeval void, Nun. (Her name might have also been linked to a word for water - nt - thus providing the connection between the goddess and the primeval waters.) Because the sun god arose from the primeval waters, and with Nit being these waters, she was thought to be the mother of the sun, and mother of the gods. She was called 'Nit, the Cow Who Gave Birth to Ra' as one of her titles. The evil serpent Apep, enemy of Ra, was believed to have been created when Nit spat into the waters of Nun, her spittle turning into the giant snake. As a creatrix, though, her name was written using the hieroglyph of an ejaculating phallus - - a strong link to the male creative force a hint as to her part in the creation of the universe.

According to the Iunyt (Esna) cosmology the goddess emerged from the primeval waters to create the world. She then followed the flow of the Nile northward to found Zau in company with the subsequently venerated lates-fish. There are much earlier references to Nit's association with the primordial flood-waters and to her demiurge: Amenhotep II (Dynasty XVIII) in one inscription is the pharaoh 'whose being Nit moulded'; the papyrus (Dynasty XX) giving the account of the struggle between Horus and Set mentions Nit 'who illuminated the first face' and in the sixth century BC the goddess is said to have invented birth.

-- A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, George Hart

There is confusion as to the Emblem of Nit - originally it was of a shield and two crossed arrows. This was her symbol from the earliest times, and she was no doubt a goddess of hunting and war since predynastic times. The symbol of her town, Zau, used this emblem from early times, and was used in the name of the nome of which her city was the capital. The earliest use of this Emblem was used in the name of queen Nithotep, 'Nit is Pleased', who seems to have been the wife of Aha "Fighter" Menes of the 1st Dynasty. Another early dynastic queen, Mernit, 'Beloved of Nit', served as regent around the time of king Den.

Her most ancient symbol is the shield with crossed arrows, which occurs in the early dynastic period... This warlike emblem is reflected in her titles 'Mistress of the Bow... Ruler of Arrows'.

-- A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, George Hart

The later form of the Emblem is what some people believe to be a weaving shuttle. It is possible that the symbols were confused by the Egyptians themselves, and so she became a goddess of weaving and other domestic arts. It was claimed, in one version of her tale, that she created the world by weaving it with her shuttle.

She was linked to with a number of goddesses including Isis, Bast, Wadjet, Nekhbet, Mut and Sekhmet. As a cow, she was linked to both Nut and Hathor. She was also linked to Tatet, the goddess who dressed the dead, and was thus linked to preservation of the dead. This was probably due to being a weaver goddess - she was believed to make the bandages for the deceased.

She might have also been linked to Anubis and Wepwawet (Upuaut), because one of her earliest titles was also 'Opener of the Ways'. She was also one of the four goddesses - herself, Isis, Nephthys and Serqet - who watched over the deceased as well as each goddess protecting one of the four sons of Horus. Nit watched over the east side of the sarcophagus and looked after the jackal-headed Duamutef who guarded the stomach of the dead. Also, during the earliest times, weapons were placed around the grave to protect the dead, and so her nature of a warrior-goddess might have been a direct link to her becoming a mortuary goddess.

Her son, other than the sun god Ra, was believed to be Sobek, the crocodile god. She was regarded as his mother from early times - the two were mentioned as mother and son in the pyramid of Unas - and one of her titles was 'Nurse of Crocodiles'. She was also regarded, during the Old Kingdom, as the wife of Set, though by later times this relationship was dropped and she became the wife of Sobek instead. In Upper Egypt she was married to the inundation god, Khnum, instead.

"Give the office of Osiris to his son Horus! Do not go on committing these great wrongs, which are not in place, or I will get angry and the sky will topple to the ground. But also tell the Lord of All, the Bull who lives in Iunu (On, Heliopolis), to double Set's property. Give him Anat and Astarte, your two daughters, and put Horus in the place of his father."

-- Nit Addressing the Gods, Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt, RT Rundle Clark

By Greek times there was a great annual festival in honour of Isis-Nit. Part of the festival, recorded by Herodotus, said that the people lit their houses with lamps and torches that were fuelled by oil mixed with salt. The lamps and torches were kept burning until the morning, while the people themselves feasted.

A protectress of Osiris, the pharaoh and the dead, she guarded the coffin and one of the canopic jars along with a son of Horus. She wove the linen bandages for the dead, protecting the body from decomposition. Linked to royalty since the 1st Dynasty, she was a guardian of the Red Crown of Lower Egypt itself. She used her arrows to put evil spirits to sleep, and thus was a goddess of the chase and of warfare. She was thought to be the water from which Ra was born, becoming the mother of Ra and thus of the gods themselves. Eventually she became the creatrix, the great creator, who was neither male nor female, but a combination of both. Despite the attempt at Iunyt to give her northern origins, where she was the wife of Khnum, she was a goddess of the delta and of Upper Egypt itself. She was 'Everything that has been, that which is, and everything that will be', the female creator god of Egypt.

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Chronos
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posted 08-17-2004 12:30     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Excellent material on Neith, Cleasterwood, to which I'll also add this information on the Cult of Athena, Neith's Greek incarnation. Her influence upon the Mediterranean cannot be underestimated:


CULT OF ATHENA

Greek: Aqhnh Transliteration: Athênê Roman Name: Minerva

ATHENA was the great Olympian goddess of battle-skill and heroism, wise counsel, pottery and sculpture, weaving and women's work, olive-trees and oil, and the defence of towns and cities.
HYMNS TO ATHENA

“Of Pallas Athena, guardian of the city, I begin to sing. Dread is she, and with Ares she loves the deeds of war, the sack of cities and the shouting and the battle. It is she who saves the people as they go to war and come back. Hail, goddess, and give us good fortune and happiness!” –Homeric Hymn 11 to Athena

“I begin to sing of Pallas Athena, the glorious goddess, bright-eyed, inventive, unbending of heart, pure virgin, saviour of cities, courageous, Tritogeneia (Trito Born). From his awful head wise Zeus himself bare her arrayed in warlike arms of flashing gold, and awe seized all the gods as they gazed. But Athena sprang quickly from the immortal head and stood before Zeus who holds the aegis, shaking a sharp spear: great Olympos began to reel horribly at the might of the grey-eyed goddess, and earth round about cried fearfully, and the sea was moved and tossed with dark waves, while foam burst forth suddenly: the bright Son of Hyperion [the Sun] stopped his swift-footed horses a long while, until the maiden Pallas Athena had stripped the heavenly armour from her immortal shoulders. And wise Zeus was glad.
Hail to you, daughter of Zeus who holds the aegis!” –Homeric Hymn 29 to Athena

CULT STATUE OF ATHENE (Image S8.1) This statue known as the "Peacable Athena" belongs to the collection of the Louvre in Paris. It is a C2nd AD Roman marble adaptation of a C4th BC Greek cult statue (possibly a copy of the bronze Athena of Piraeus).

“Only-begotten, noble race of Zeus, blessed and fierce, who joyest in caves to rove: O warlike Pallas, whose illustrious kind, ineffable, and effable we find: magnanimous and famed, the rocky height, and groves, and shady mountains thee delight: in arms rejoicing, who with furies dire and wild the souls of mortals dost inspire. Gymnastic virgin of terrific mind, dire Gorgon’s bane, unmarried, blessed, kind: mother of arts, impetuous; understood as fury by the bad, but wisdom by the good. Female and male, the arts of war are thine, O much-formed, Drakaina, inspired divine: over the Phlegraion Gigantes, roused to ire, thy coursers driving with destructive dire. Tritogeneia, of splendid mien, purger of evils, all-victorious queen. Hear me, O Goddess, when to thee I pray, with supplicating voice both night and day, and in my latest hour give peace and health, propitious times, and necessary wealth, and ever present be thy votaries aid, O much implored, art’s parent, blue-eyed maid.” –Orphic Hymn 32 to Athena


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ATHENA IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY

See ATHENA IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY PAGE (entry still under construction)


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CULT TITLES OF ATHENA

The first of Athena's cult titles referred to her various divine functions.

Goddess of War & Defence:

Greek Title: Areia
Nikh
Salpinx
LeitiV Transliteration: Areia
Nikê
Salpinx
Leitis Translation: Of War
Victory
War-Trumpet
Distributor of War Booty
Greek Title: Zwsthria
Eruma
Swteira
SqeniaV
PolemhdokoV Transliteration: Zôstêria
Eryma
Sôteira
Sthenias
Polemêdokos Translation: Girder in Armour
Defence
Saviour
Strong
War-Sustaining

Goddess of the Chariot:

Greek Title: 'Ippia
CalinitiV Transliteration: Hippia
Khalinitis Translation: Of the Horses
Bridler (of Horses)

Goddess Protector of the City:

Greek Title: PoliaV
PolioucoV
PoliatiV
Promacorma
AlalkomenhiV Transliteration: Polias
Polioukhos
Poliatis
Promakhorma
Alalkomenêis Translation: Of the City
City-Protector
Keeper of the City
Champion of the Anchorage
Protectress

Goddess of Work:

Greek Title: Erganh Transliteration: Erganê Translation: Worker

Goddess of Healing:

Greek Title: Paiwnia
'Ugeia Transliteration: Paiônia
Hygeia Translation: Healer
Health

Goddess of Wise Counsel and Crafty Planning:

Greek Title: Amboulia
Pronoia
Apatouria
MacanitiV Transliteration: Amboulia
Pronoia
Apatouria
Makhanitis Translation: Counsellor
Foresight
Deceitful
Contriver (of plans & devices)

Goddess of Safe Refuge and Hospitality:

Greek Title: Alea
Xenia Transliteration: Alea
Xenia Translation: Escape (to refuge)
Hospitable

Goddess of Eyesight:

Greek Title: PfqalmitiV
OxuderkhV Transliteration: Ophthalmitis
Oxyderkês Translation: Of the Eyes
Sharp-Sighted

The Virgin Goddess:

Greek Title: ParqenoV
Korih Transliteration: Parthenos
Koriê Translation: Virgin
Maiden

Another common set of cult titles came from the towns, cities and other locales where her shrines were located.

Greek Title: Sounia
SkiraV
'IppolaitiV
Nedousia Transliteration: Sounia
Skiras
Hippolaitis
Nedousia Translation: Of Sounion (in Attika)
Of Skiras (Salamis)
Of Hipplas (in Lakedaimonia)
Of Nedon (in Messenia)
Greek Title: Kuparissia
Skilluntia
Larisaia
Panacaia Transliteration: Kyparissia
Skilluntia
Larisaia
Panakhaia Translation: Of Kyparissiae (in Messenia)
Of Skillos (in Elis)
Of Larisos R (in Akhaia)
Of All Akhaia
Greek Title: AlalkomenhiV
Alalkomenh
Itwnia
Kudwnia
Lindia
Telcinia Transliteration: Alalkomenêis
Alalkomenê
Itônia
Kydônia
Lindia
Telkhinia Translation: Of Alalkomenai (in Boiotia)
Of Alalkomenai (in Boiotia)
Of Itonos (in Thessalia)
Of Kydonia (in Krete)
Of Lindos (in Rhodes)
Of Telkhinia (in Kypros)

The next set of cult titles were named for the founders (real or mythical) of certain temples and shrines of the goddess.

Greek Title: SkiraV
AiantiV
Narkaia Transliteration: Skiras
Aiantis
Narkaia Translation: Of Skiron (hero Salamis)
Of Aias (hero Salamis)
Of Narkaios (hero Elis)
Greek Title: ALea
Itwnia Transliteration: Alea
Itônia Translation: Of Aleos (hero Arkadia)
Of Itonos (hero Boiotia)

Another set of titles were used to describe the physical location of a particular shrine:

Greek Title: Aiquia
Agoraia
Calkioikon Transliteration: Aithuia
Agoraia
Khalkioikon Translation: Of the Gannet-Colony
Of the Market-Place
Of the Bronze House
Greek Title: Pronaia
Kissaia
Kuparissia Transliteration: Pronaia
Kissaia
Kyparissia Translation: Of the Fore-Temple
Of the Ivy
Of the Cypress-Grove

A few were derived from the story behind a shrine or cult idol.

Greek Title: AxiopoinoV
AnemwtiV
Keleuqeia Transliteration: Axiopoinos
Anemôtis
Keleutheia Translation: Returning Vengeance
Of the Winds
Of the Road
Greek Title: Mhthr
Asia
Ilia Transliteration: Mêtêr
Asia
Ilia Translation: Mother
Of Asia
Of Ilion (Troy)

Other obscure cult titles of Athena:

Greek Title: Tiqrwnh
SaitiV
Korufasia
KranaihV Transliteration: Tithrônê
Saitis
Koryphasia
Kranaiês Translation:

Athena also obtained titles from foreign godesses with whom she was identified:

Greek: SaiV
Ongh
TritwniV Transliteration: Sais
Ongê
Tritônis Translation: (Egyptian Goddess)
(Phoenician Goddess)
(Libyan Goddess?)

Her temples were named:

Greek: Aqnnaion Transliteration: Athênaion Translation: Temple of Athena

Some of the goddess's more famous festivals were:

Greek: Aqhnaia
Panaqhnaia
Calkeia Transliteration: Athênaia
Panathênaia
Kahlkeia Translation: Festival of Athena (Athens)
All-Athenian Festival (Athens)
Festival of the Bronzes (Athens)
Greek: Procaristhria
Plunthria
Skira Transliteration: Prokharistêria
Plyntêria
Skira Translation: Thanksgiving Festival (Athens)
Washing-Day Festival (Athens)
Parasol Festival (Athens)
Greek: Proteleia
Aleaia
'Alwtia
Itwnia
Pamboiwtia Transliteration: Proteleia
Aleaia
Halô
Itônia
Pamboiôtia Translation: Preliminary Sacrifices (Athens)
Festival of Athena Alea (Tegea)
Capture Festival (Tegea)
Festival of Athena Itonia (Itonos)
Festival of All-Boiotians (Koroneia)

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http://theoi.com/Cult/AthenaCult.html

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-18-2004 05:33     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Nice follow up, Chronos! It's very interesting to see the names and correlations of Nieth to Athena. I notice a few things they have in common almost immediately are: battle-skill, heroism, wise counsel, weaving, and defense of towns & cities. The comparison is striking!

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-18-2004 08:42     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
I'm in the process of gathering the lists with duties for both Egyptian and Greek Gods to have some way to visually compare the two to see if we can find any solid correlation between them. All results will be posted here. I started it, but then my dog decided to skitz out and erase all my work.

[This message has been edited by cleasterwood (edited 08-19-2004).]

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Chronos
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posted 08-24-2004 12:36     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Glossary of
Egyptian Mythology

© 1997 Deurer
All Rights Reserved.


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You may need to use the "Return" button on your browser to return here.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T . U. V. W. X. Y. Z


A
ABTU. . The Greeks called this place Abydos. It was the seat of worship of Osiris. It was also called Busiris, "the house of Osiris". Egyptian tradition says that the sun ended his daily journey at Abydos, and entered into the underworld here, through a gap in the mountains called "peq". In the 12th dynasty it was believed that the souls of the dead entered into the afterlife here.
AKER. . The double lion god, gaurdian of the sunrise and sunset. Gaurdian of the peaks that supported the sky. The western peak was called Manu, while the eastern peak was called Bakhu.

AKH. . The akh was the aspect of a person that would join the gods in the underworld being immortal and unchangeable. It was created after death by the use of funerary text and spells, designed to bring forth an akh. Once this was achieved that individual was assured of not "dying a second time" a death that would mean the end of one's existence.

AKHET. . This was the horizon from which the sun emerged and disappeared. The horizon thus embodied the idea of both sunrise and sunset. It is similar to the two peaks of the Djew or mountain symbol with a solar disk in the center. Both the beginning and the end of each day was guarded by Aker, a double lion god. In the New Kingdom, Harmakhet ("Horus in the Horizon") became the god of the rising and setting sun. He was pictured as a falcon, or as a sphinx with the body of a lion. The Great Sphinx of Giza is an example of "Horus in the Horizon".

AMARNA. . The name given to the historical time period under the rule of Amenophis IV /Akhenaten. During this time period there were unprecedented changes in the government, art and religion.

AMENTA . . The Underworld. Originally the place where the sun set, this name was later applied to the West Bank of the Nile where the Egyptians built their tombs.

AMMUT. . A female demon, she is found in The Book of the Dead, She plays an important role in the Hall of Maat.

AMULET. . A charm, often in the form of hieroglyphs, gods or sacred animals; made of precious stones or faience. They were worn like jewelry during life, and were included within the mummy wrappings for the afterlife.

AMUN. . A god who's cult center was the temple of Amun at Karnak. He was considered to be king of all the gods and the the creator of all things.

ANROSPHINX. . One of three varieties of Egyptian sphinx, having the head of a man.

ANKH. . A symbol of life, resembling a looped cross. It was later adapted by Coptic Christians as their cross. Widely used as an amulet.

ANTHROPOID. . A Greek word meaning; man-shaped. This term is used for coffins made in the shape of a human.

ANUBIS. . A jackal headed god. Guardian of the necropolis.

APIS BULL. . The Apis Bull was sacred to Osiris. It was revered from the earliest times, through the Graeco-Roman period.

AQUERT. . A name for the land of the dead.

ATEF CROWN. . The atef crown was worn by Osiris. It is made up of the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red feathers are representative of Busiris, Osiris's cult center in the Delta.

ATEN. . The god that gained its prominence during the reign of Akhenaten, who abolished the traditional cults of Egypt and replaced them with the Aten. This created the first monotheistic cult in the world.


B
BA. . The ba can best be described as someone's personality. Like a person's body, each ba was an individual. It entered a person's body with the breath of life and it left at the time of death. The ba is associated with divinity and power. It had the ability to take on different forms, in this respect the gods had many bas. The ba of the deceased is able to move freely between the underworld and the physical world. The ba is similar to the ka.
BASTET. . A cat headed goddess. As a sun goddess she represents the warm, life giving power of the sun.

BAKHU. . The mythical mountain from which the sun rose. The region of the eastern horizon. One of two mountains that held up the sky, the other being Manu. These peaks were guarded by the double lion god, Aker.

BARQUE. . A boat in which the gods sailed. The barque of Ra carried a host of deities across the sky each day.

BARQUE SHRINE. . Model barques were kept in these shrines in temples. These model barques were used to carry deities out of the temples in festival processions.

BIRTH HOUSE. . These were small temples, attached to the main temples of the Late and Greco-Roman Periods. These small temples are where the god of the main temple was born, or if the main temple was dedicated to a goddess it was where she bore her children.

BENBEN. . A stone resembling an obelisk, representative of a sun ray

BENNU. . an aspect of Ra-Atum in the form of a phoenix. The patron of the reckoning of time. The carrier of eternal light from the abode of the gods to the world of men.

BOOK OF THE DEAD. . This is a collection of magic spells and formulas that was illustrated and written, usually on papyrus. It began to appear in Egyptian tombs around 1600 BC. The text was intended to be spoken by the deceased during their journey into the Underworld. It enabled the deceased to overcome obstacles in the afterlife. It did this by teaching passwords that allowed the deceased to turn into mythical creatures to navigate around hazards, while granting the help and protection of the gods, and proclaiming the deceased's identity with the gods. The texts continue the tradition of the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. There are about 200 known spells and the choice of spells can vary from copy to copy.


C
CANOPIC JARS. . Four jars used to store the preserved internal organs of the deceased. Each jar is representative of one of the four sons of Horus. The term comes from the Greek , Canopus, a demigod venerated in the form of a human headed jar.
CARTONNAGE. . Papyrus or linen soaked in plaster, shaped around a body. Used for mummy masks and coffins.

CARTOUCHE. . A circle with a horizontal bar at the bottom, elongated into an oval within which king's names are written It is believed to act as a protector of the kings name. The sign represents a loop of rope that is never ending.

CENOTAPH. . From the Greek word meaning; "empty tomb". A tomb built for ceremonial purposes that was never intended to be used for the interment of the deceased.

COFFIN TEXTS. . Texts written inside coffins of the Middle Kingdom that are intended to direct the souls of the dead past the dangers and perils encountered on the journey through the afterlife. More than 1,000 spells are known.

COLOSSUS. . A more then life size statue, often of a kings, but also of gods and even private individuals. These huge statues usually flank the gates or pylons of temples. They are believed to act as intermediaries between men and the gods.

CRIOSPHINX. . One of three varieties of Egyptian sphinx, having the head of a ram.


D
DESHRET. . The red crown. This was the crown that represented Lower Egypt (northern).
DIVINE ADORATRICE. . Chief priestess of Amun in Thebes, an office known from the New Kingdom through the Late Period. The office was an important vehicle of political control.

DJED COLUMN . . It is believed that the Djed is a rendering of a human backbone. It represents stability and strength. It was originally associated with the creation god Ptah. Himself being called the "Noble Djed". As the Osiris cults took hold it became known as the backbone of Osiris . A djed column is often painted on the bottom of coffins, where the backbone of the deceased would lay, this identified the person with the king of the underworld, Osiris. It also acts as a sign of stability for the deceased' journey into the afterlife.

DJEW. . This means mountain. The Egyptians believed that there was a cosmic mountain range that held up the heavens. This mountain range had two peaks, the western peak was called Manu, while the eastern peak was called Bakhu. It was on these peaks that heaven rested. Each peak of this mountain chain was guarded by a Akerlion deity named AKER, who's job it was to protect the sun as it rose and set. The mountain was also a symbol of the tomb and the afterlife, probably because most Egyptian tombs were located in the mountainous land bordering the Nile valley. In some texts we find Anubis, the gaurdian of the tomb being referred to as "He who is upon his mountain." Sometimes we find Hathor takeing on the attributes of a deity of the afterlife, at this time she is called "Mistress of the Necropolis." She is rendered as the head of a cow protruding from a mountainside.

DROMOS. . A straight, paved avenue flanked by sphinxes.

DUAT. . The land of the dead. It Iies under the earth and is entered through the western horizon.

E
ENNEAD. . A group of 9 deities that are associated with a major cult center. The best known is the great ennead of Heliopolis, It consists of Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys.
ELECTRUM. . A mixture of gold and silver.

F
FAIENCE. . A glazed material, with a base of either carved soapstone or moulded clay, with an overlay of blue/green colored glass.
FALSE DOOR. . A door carved or painted on a wall. The ka would use this door to partake of funerary offerings.

FECUNDITY FIGURE. . Type of offering bearer rendered at the base of temple walls. They are shown bringing offerings into the temple. The male figures are often shown with heavy pendulous breasts and bulging stomachs, this plumpness symbolizing the abundance of the offerings they bring.

FETISH. . An animal skin hanging from a stick. It was used by the cults of Osiris and Anubis.

FLAGELLUM. . A crop or whip used to ward off evil spirits.

FUNERARY CONES . . Clay cones inserted above a tombs entrance with the name and title of the deceased.

FUNERARY OFFERINGS . . Bread, beer, wine and other food items provided by mourners or magically, through inscriptions and pictures in the tomb.

FLAME. . This symbol represents a lamp or brazier on a stand from which a flame emerges. Fire was embodied in the sun and in its symbol the uraeus which spit fire. Fire also plays a part in the Egyptian concept of the underworld. There is one terrifying aspect of the underworld which is similar to the christians concept of hell. Most egyptians would like to avoid this place with its fiery lakes and rivers that are inhabited by fire demons.

G
GEB . . A god that is sometimes pictured with the head of a goose. Geb was called 'the Great Cackler', and as such, was represented as a goose. It was in this form that he was said to have laid the egg from which the sun was hatched. He was believed to have been the third divine king of earth. The royal throne of Egypt was known as the 'throne of Geb' in honor of his great reign.
H
HAPI. . The god of the Nile, particularly the inundation. He is pictured as a bearded man coloured blue or green, with female breasts, indicating his powers of nourishment. As god of the Northern Nile he wears papyrus plants on his head, and as god of the southern Nile he wears lotus plants.
HATHOR. . Hathor was the goddess of joy, motherhood, and love. Hathor was originally worshipped in the form of a cow, sometimes as a cow with stars on her. Later she is represented as a woman with the head of a cow, and finally with a human head, the face broad and placid, sometimes she is depicted with the ears or horns of a cow.

HEDJET. . A white crown. This was the crown of Upper Egypt (southern).

HIERACOSPHINX. . One of three varieties of Egyptian sphinx, having the head of a hawk.

HIERATIC. . From the Greek word meaning "sacred," Although this form of the written language was used throughout Egyptian history, it's name comes from the later periods when it was used only in religious texts.

HIEROGLYPH. . The Egyptian picture language. From the Greek word meaning "sacred carving". The symbols are individual pictures that do not join together.

HIGH PRIEST. . The head of the local priesthood.

HORUS. . A falcon headed god. Horus was so important to the state religion that Pharaohs were considered his human manifestation and even took on the name Horus.

HORUS NAME. . A king's name. It identifies the king with a form of the god Horus.

HYPOSTYLE HALL. . From the Greek word meaning; "bearing pillars". It is a term used to describe the grand, outermost halls. They are believed to represent a grove of trees.

I
IBU. . The tent of purification. This is the place where mummification was preformed.
IEB. . This is the heart. The Egyptians believed the heart was the center of all consciousness, even the center of life itself. When someone died it was said that their "heart had departed." It was the only organ that was not removed from the body during mummification. In the Book of the dead, it was the heart that was weighed against the feather of Maat to see if an individual was worthy of joining Osiris in the afterlife.

ISIS. . Isis was a great enchantress, the goddess of magic. She is often represented as a woman wearing on her head the hieroglyphic symbol of her name, which represents a throne or seat.

ITHYPHALLIC. . From the Greek word meaning; "with erect penis". Various gods are represented in this form. Most notably Min and Amun.

J
K
KA. . The ka is usually translated as "double", it represents a person's double. It is what we would call a spirit or a soul. The ka was created at the same time as the physical body. It was believed that the ram-headed god Khnum crafted the ka on his potter's wheel at the time of a persons birth. A persons ka would live on after their body had died. It was thought that when someone died they "met their ka". The ka existed in the physical world and resided in the tomb (House of the Ka). It had the same needs that the person had in life, which was to eat, drink, etc. The Egyptians left offerings of food, drink, and worldly possessions in tombs for the ka to use.
KHEPRESH. . The blue crown was a ceremonial crown.

KHEPRI. . A scarab headed god. The Egyptians believed that Khepri pushed the sun across the sky in much the same fashion that a dung beetle (scarab) pushed a ball of dung across the ground.

KHET. . This is a flame or fire. Fire was embodied in the sun and in its symbol the uraeus which spit fire. Fire also plays a part in the Egyptian concept of the underworld. There is one terrifying aspect of the underworld which is similar to the christians concept of hell. Most egyptians would like to avoid this place with its fiery lakes and rivers that are inhabited by fire demons.

KHNUM. . A ram headed god. His name means to create. He was the creator of all things that are and all things that shall be. He created the gods and he fashioned mankind on a potters wheel.

KHU . . A spiritual entity often mentioned in association with the ba. It was viewed as an entirely spiritual and absolutely immortal being.

L
LECTOR PRIEST. . Translates as "One who bears the ritual book". This priests function was to recite from the ritual texts.
LOTUS. . A symbol of birth and dawn; it was thought to have been the cradle of the sun on the first morning of creation, rising from the primeval waters. The lotus was a common architectural motif, particularly used on capitals

M
MAAT. . The concept of order, truth, regularity and justice which was all important to the ancient Egyptians. It was the duty of the pharaohs to uphold maat.
MAMMISI. . See BIRTH HOUSE

MANU. . The mythical mountain on which the sun set. The region of the western horizon. One of two mountains that held up the sky, the other being BAKHU. These peaks were guarded by the double lion god, AKER.

MASTABA. . The Arabic word meaning; "bench". Used to describe tombs of the Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom. The basic form resembled a bench.

MENAT. . A protective amulet invoking the divine favor. It was usually worn on a string of beads at the back of the neck, probably as a counterpoise to items of jewelry worn in front. Many of these amulets have been found in tombs. They were supposed to bring fertility to women and virility to men.

MENHED. . A scribes pallet. Writing was a very important skill to the ancient Egyptians. It was practiced by a group called scribes. The writing equipment used by scribes consisted of a palette, which held black and red pigments, a water jar, and a pen. To be a scribe was a favorable position, even some kings and nobles are show proudly displaying scribe palettes.

MIN. . In early times Min was a sky-god whose symbol was a thunderbolt. His title was Chief of Heaven. He was also seen as a rain god that promoted the fertility of nature, especially in the growing of grain.

MISTRESS OF THE HOUSE. . Housewife, title given to married ladies from the Middle Kingdom onwards.

MORTUARY. . pertaining to the burial of the dead.

MORTUARY CULT. . People who provided funerary offerings for nourishment of the deceased.

MORTUARY PRIEST . . Called the "servant of the ka". This was a Person who was appointed to bring daily offerings to a tomb.

MUMMY. . From the Persian word; "moumiya". A preserved corpse by either natural or artificial means. Mummification involved thoroughly drying the body to remove the source of decay.

MUT. . Mut was the divine mother goddess, the queen of all gods. She is portraied as a woman wearing a vulture headdress, with the double crown(Pshent) of upper and lower Egypt.

N
NATRON. . A naturally occurring salt used as a preservative and drying agent during mummification. It is a mixture of four salts that occur in varying proportions: sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
NAOS . . Shrine in which divine statues were kept, especially in temple sanctuaries. A small wooden naos was normally placed inside a monolithic one in hard stone; the latter are typical of the Late Period, and sometimes elaborately decorated. Also used as a term for temple sanctuary.

NEBU. . This is the Egyptian word for gold, which was considered a divine metal, it was thought to be the flesh of the gods. Its polished surface was related to the brilliance of the sun. Gold was important to the afterlife as it represents aspects of immortality. By the New Kingdom, the royal burial chamber was called the "House of Gold."

NECROPOLIS. . The Greek word meaning; "city of the dead" normally describes large and important burial areas that were in use for long periods.

NEITH. . A goddess of the hunt. She may have also been a war goddess. Neith was pictured as a woman wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt, holding a bow and crossed arrows. Her cult sign was a shield and crossed arrows.

NEKHBET. . A goddess portrayed as a vulture. Protectress of Upper Egypt.

NEMES. . A striped headcloth worn by Pharaohs.

NEPHTHYS. . A goddess, the twin sister of Osiris, Isis and Seth. She plays an important role in the Osiris legend. Her name means 'Lady of the House' it's thought to be referring to Osiris' Palace.

NETER. . This seems to be the egyptian word for the forces that are god or a group of gods, although the exact meaning is unknown.

NETER-KHERTET. . This translates as "divine subterranean place". A name for the land of the dead.

NILOMETER. . Staircase descending into the Nile and marked with levels above low water; used for measuring, and in some cases recording, inundation levels. The most famous are on Elephantine island and on Roda island in Cairo.

NOMARCH. . The chief official of a nome. In the late Old Kingdom, and early Middle Kingdom nomarchs gained their office as hereditary rulers. They governed their nomes more or less independently of any central authority. During periods of highly centralized government, nomes ceased to have much political importance.

NOME. . From the Greek, nomos; this is an administrative province of Egypt. The nome system started in the Early Dynastic Period. During some periods, when there was a highly centralized government the nomes had little political importance.

NU. . A swirling watery chaos from which the cosmic order was produced. In the begining there was only Nu. See also the creation myths

NUT. . Nut was originally a mother-goddess who had many children. The hieroglyph for her name, which she is often seen wearing on her head is a water pot, but it is also thought to represent a womb. As the sky goddess, she is shown stretching from horizon to horizon, touching only her fingertips and toes to the ground.

O
OBELISK. . From the Greek word meaning; "a spit". It is a monumental tapering shaft usually made of pink granite. Capped with a pyramidion at the top. Obelisks are solar symbols similar in meaning to pyramids, they are associated with an ancient stone called BENBEN in Heliopolis. They were set in pairs, at the entrances of temples, and to some Old Kingdom tombs.
OGDOAD. . Term describing the group of 8 deities associated with Hermopolis. It contained four couples who symbolized the state of the world before creation. The group usually consists of: Nun and Naunet, representing the primeval waters; Huh and Hauhet, being endless space; Kuk and Kauket. are darkness; Amun and Amaunet. represent that which is hidden.

OPENING OF THE MOUTH. . This ceremony was performed at the funeral to restore the senses of the deceased. The ceremony was done by touching an adze to the mouth of a mummy or statue of the deceased, it was believed to restore the senses in preparation for the afterlife.

OPET. . A great religious festival that took place in Thebes during the inundation. The god Amun was taken from his temple at Karnak and brought to visit his wife, Mut at her temple of Luxor.

OSIRIS. . Supreme god and judge of the dead. The symbol of resurrection and eternal life. Provider of fertility and prosperity to the living. A bearded man wearing white mummy wrappings. Wearing the atef crown and holding the symbols of supreme power, the flail and crook. His skin is green to represent vegetation or red to represent the earth.

OSIRID PILLAR. . Pillar. mostly in an open court or portico, with a colossal statue of a king forming its front part; unlike caryatids in Classical architecture, the statues are not weight-bearing elements. Most are mummiform, but not all; the connection with Osiris is doubtful.

OSTRACON. . From the Greek word meaning; "potsherd". A chip or shard of limestone or pottery used as a writing tablet. Ostraca are known from all periods. but 19th and 20th-Dynasty examples are the most common. The texts can be anything from a simple shopping list to drafts of hieroglyphic inscriptions.

P
PANTHEON . . All the gods, collectively as a group.
PAPYRUS. . The main Egyptian writing material, and an important export. The earliest papyrus dates to the Ist Dynasty, the latest to the Islamic Period. Oddly enough, the papyrus plant became extinct in Egypt, being reintroduced in the 1960's, it is now an important link in the tourist trade. Sheets were made by cutting the stem of the plant into strips. These strips were soaked in several baths to remove some of the sugar and starches. These strips were then laid in rows horizontally and vertically. Then it was beaten together, activating the plant's natural starches and forming a glue that bound the sheet together. Separate sheets were glued together to form a roll.

PER NEFER . . The place where some of the purification and mummification rituals took place.

PET. . This is the sky depicted as a ceiling which drops at the ends, the same way the real sky seems to reach for the horizon. This sign was often used in architectural motifs; the top of walls, and door frames. It symbolizes the heavens.

PRAENOMEN. . This is a king's first cartouche name, which he adopted on his accession; also called the "throne name." It consists of a statement about the god Ra.

PRONAOS. . Room in front of the naos sanctuary of a temple. The location of this room varies with the design of the temple.

PROPHET. . This translates as "God's Servant", There was usually a ranking; the high priest of Amun at Thebes was called "The First Prophet of Amun"; below him were the Second Prophet and so on. The head of the local cults, was often called "Overseer of Prophets."

PROPYLON. . Gateway that stands in front of a pylon.

PSHENT. . The Crown of upper and lower Egypt, the red crown and the white crown put together to represent a unified Egypt. Although Egypt was not always a unified nation it was stronger that way.Therefore unification was desirable. Narmer (Menes), the founder of the First Dynasty around 3100 B.C., was the first man recorded wearing this crown.

PTAH. . He is a creator god. The patron of architects, artists and sculptors. It was Ptah who built the boats for the souls of the dead to use in the afterlife.

PYLON. . From the Greek word meaning "gate" It is a monumental entrance wall of a temple. Pylons are the largest and least essential parts of a temple that is usually built last. Some temples have more then one set, the temple at Karnak has 10 Pylons.

PYRAMIDION. . Capstone of a pyramid or the top of an obelisk. The pyramidion was decorated and became a symbolic object that was the focal point of the small brick pyramids of private tombs.

PYRAMID TEXTS. . Texts on the walls of the pyramids of the end of the 5th through 8th Dynasties.

Q

R
RA. . From very early times Ra was a sun god. He took on many of the attributes and even the names of other gods as Egyptian myths evolved. He is often pictured as a hawk or as a hawk headed man with a solar disk encircled by a uraeus on his head. He is often pictured wearing the double crown of upper and lower Egypt.
ROCK-CUT TOMB. . Method of excavating tombs that begun during the Middle Kingdom. The burials in the Valley of the Kings are perhaps the best known Rock-cut tombs.

S
SA. . The Sa was a symbol of protection. Its origins are uncertain, but it is speculated that it represents either a rolled up herdsman's shelter or a papyrus life-preserver used by ancient egyptian boaters. Either way it is clearly a symbol of protection. From early times the Sa plays an important part in jewelry design. It is often used in conjunction with symbols, particularly the ankh, was and djed signs. We often find Taurt, the hippopotamus goddess of childbirth, resting her paw on a standing Sa sign.
SAFF TOMB. . An Arabic word that means "row", it describes the rock-cut tombs of the early 11th Dynasty that consisted of a row of openings on the hillside.

SARCOPHAGUS . . From the Greek word meaning; "flesh eater". It was the name given to the stone container within which the coffins and mummy were placed.

SCARAB . . The dung-rolling beetle was, to the ancient Egyptians, a symbol of regeneration and spontaneous creation, as it seemed to emerge from nowhere; in fact it came from eggs previously laid in the sand. Seals and amulets in scarab form were very common and were thought to possess magic powers.

SED FESTIVAL. . This is ritual meant to show royal regeneration. It was traditionally celebrated after 30 years of a king's reign. It is a scene usually found decorating the mortuary temples of the king.

SEKHEM. . A symbol of authority.

SEKHET-AANRU. . This mythical place was originally called the "Field of the Aanru plants" It was believed to be islands in the Delta where the souls of the dead lived. This was the abode of the god Osiris, who bestowed goodness upon his followers, and here the dead could lead a new existence complete with an abundance of food of every kind. The Sekhet-Aanru is in the "Fields of Peace".

SEKHET-HETEPET. . According to the Osiris cults the Fields of Peace was the desired location of the deceased. They would join with their god, Osiris and become a khu, drink, plow, reap, fight, make love, never be in a state of servitude and always be in a position of authority.

SEKHMET. . A lion headed goddess. As a sun goddess she represents the scorching, burning, destructive heat of the sun. She was a fierce goddess of war, the destroyer of the enemies of Ra and Osiris.

SEPAT. . The ancient Egyptian term for an administrative province of Egypt. See also NOME.

SESEN. . A lotus flower. This is a symbol of the sun, of creation and rebirth. Because at night the flower closes and sinks underwater, at dawn it rises and opens again. According to one creation myth it was a giant lotus which first rose out of the watery chaos at the beginning of time. From this giant lotus the sun itself rose on the first day.

SET AMENTET. . This means "the mountain of the underworld," a common name for the cemeteries were in the mountains or desert on the western bank of the Nile.

SETH. . Early in Egyptian history, Seth is spoken of in terms of reverence as the god of wind and storms. He was even known as the Lord of Upper Egypt. Later he became the god of evil.

SHAWABTI . . See USHABTI.

SHE. . A pool of water. The Egyptians believed water was the primeval matter from which aII creation began. Life in Egypt's desert climate depended on water, and a pool of water would be a great luxury. There are many tomb paintings that show the deceased drinking from a pool in the afterlife.

SHEN. . A loop of rope that has no beginning and no end, it symbolized eternity. The shen also seems to be a symbol of protection. It is often seen being clutched by deities in bird form, Horus the falcon, Mut the vulture. Hovering over Pharaohs head with their wings outstretched in a gesture of protection. The word shen comes from the word "shenu" which means "encircle," and in its elongated form became the cartouche which surrounded the king's name.

SISTRUM. . The sistrum was a sacred noise-making instrument used in the cult of Hathor. The sistrum consisted of a wooden or metal frame fitted with loose strips of metal and disks which jingled when moved. This noise was thought to attract the attention of the gods. There are two types of sistrum, an iba, was shaped in a simple loop, like a closed horse-shoe with loose cross bars of metal above a Hathor head and a long handle. The seseshet had the shape of a naos temple above a Hathor head, with ornamental loops on the sides. The rattle was inside the box of the naos. They were usually carried by women of high rank.

SOBEK. . A crocodile-headed god. Admired and feared for his ferocity. At the command of Ra, He performed tasks such as catching with a net the four sons of Horus as they emerged from the waters in a lotus bloom.

SPHINX. . A figure with the body of a lion and the head of a man, hawk or a ram.

STELA. . A stone slab, sometimes wood, decorated with paintings, reliefs or texts. They usually commemorate an event.

T
TALATAT. . This Arabic word means "three handbreadths". It is used to describe the typical stone building blocks of temples of Akhenaten, they are decorated with scenes in the Amarna style. They have been found reused at a number of other building sites.
TAURT. . A goddess who protected pregnant woman and infants. Also protectress of rebirth into the afterlife. She is pictured as a pregnant hippopotamus with human breasts, the hind legs of a lioness and the tail of a crocodile.

THEBAN TRIAD. . This consist of the gods Amun, his wife Mut, and their son Khons.

THOTH. . An ibis headed god. Thoth was said to be mighty in knowledge and divine speech. The inventer of spoken and written language. As the lord of books he was the scribe of the gods and patron of all scribes. He is credited with inventing astronomy, geometry, and medicine. Thoth was the measurer of the earth and the counter of the stars, the keeper and recorder of all knowledge. It was Thoth who was believed to have written important religious texts such as The Book of the Dead.

TIET. . The exact origin of the tiet is unknown. In many respects it resembles an ankh except that its arms curve down. Its meaning is also reminiscent of the ankh, it is often translated to mean welfare or life. As early as the Third Dynasty we find the tiet being used as decoration when it appears with both the ankh and the djed column, and later with the was scepter. The tiet is associated with Isis and is often called "the knot of Isis" or "the blood of Isis." It seems to be called "the knot of Isis" because it resembles a knot used to secure the garments that the gods wore. The meaning of "the blood of Isis" is more obscured but it was often used as a funerary amulet made of a red stone or glass. In the Late Period the sign was associated with the goddesses Nephthys, Hathor, and Nut as well as with Isis. In all these cases it seems to represent the ideas of resurrection and eternal life.

TUAT. . The land of the dead. It Iies under the earth and is entered through the western horizon.

U
UDJAT . . This important symbol is named after the "sound eye" of Horus. According to one version of the legend Seth, the god of evil intentions, snatched away the eye of Horus which then fell to pieces. Thoth found it and put it together again. The udjat was regarded as a powerful protective amulet; it is frequently found in tombs, on coffins and on the seal which was placed over the incision in the mummy through which the internal organs were removed.
UNDERWORLD BOOKS. . A textual and pictorial compositions that is found in New Kingdom tombs. It follows the daily passage of the sun god across the sky and through the underworld.

URAEUS. . A symbol of kingship. A rearing cobra was worn on the king's forehead or crown. The cobra was associated with the "eye" of the sun. It was a protector of the king, spitting out fire.

USHABTI. . Literally translated it means "to answer." It is a small mummiform figure placed in tombs to do work in the afterlife on behalf of the deceased. In some tombs of the late New Kingdom whole gangs of ushabti workers were included with different tools for doing different work. A complete collection would consist of 401 Ushabti: one for each day of the year, 365 plus 36 foreman.

V

W
WAS SCEPTER. . This is a symbol of power and dominion. The Was scepter is carried by deities as a sign of their power. It is also seen being carried by kings and later by people of lesser stature in mortuary scenes.
WABET. . A place where part of purification and mummification rites took place.

WADJET. . See Udjat.

WINGED DISK. . This is a form that the god Horus Behudety (Horus of Edfu) takes in his battles with Seth. The god Thoth used his magic to turn Horus into a sun-disk with splendid outstretched wings. The goddesses Nekhbet and Uazet in the form of uraeus snakes joined him at his side. The earliest example of this image is found in the Ist Dynasty. It is used widely in architecture, on ceilings, cornices and stelae. It is an image that is often copied outside Egypt.

X

Y

Z
ZODIAC. . The Babylonian and Greek signs of the zodiac were introduced into Egypt in the Greco-Roman Period. They were adapted into Egyptian imagery and used to decorate ceilings of tombs and temples, and coffin lids.

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cleasterwood
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posted 08-24-2004 13:03     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Chronos,
Good research, but by far not the most complete. Here is the list of Egyptian Gods I've compiled and it's extensive but it gives only relevant information on the Diety and his/her associations.
The Gods
Aken Ferryman of the Underworld
Aker Guardian and Gatekeeper of the Underworld
Am-Heh - Devourer of Millions
Ament Greeter of the Dead
Ammit Devourer of the Wicked
Amun and Amun-Re The King of the Gods
Anat Mother of Gods
Andjety A precursor of Osiris
Anqet The Embracer, Goddess of Fertility and the Nile at Aswan
Anubis God of Embalming
Anuke Goddess of War
Anuket Goddess of the Nile
Apep The Great Destroyer
Arensnuphis Anthropomorphic Nubian Deity
As Kindly God of the Desert
Astarte, Warrior Goddess of Canaan
Aten The Sun Disk and later God
Atum The All-Father
Auf (Efu Ra) An aspect of the sun god Ra
Baal, God of Thunder
Ba-Pef - The Soul
Babi - The Dominant Male Baboon God
Banebdjetet God of Lower Egypt
Bast Beautiful Cat-Goddess
Bat - Ancient Cow Goddess
Benu (Bennu) - The Bird of Creation
Bes Protector of Childbirth
Dedwen - Nubian God of Resources
Denwen - The Fiery Serpent
The Ennead The Nine Great Osirian Gods
Fetket - The Sun God's Butler
Geb God of the Earth
Gengen Wer - The Great Honker
Hapi God of the Nile River
Hathor Goddess of Music and Dance
Hatmehyt - The Fish Goddess
Haurun, The Victorious Herdsman
Heh and Hauhet Deities of Infinity and Eternity
Heqet Frog Goddess
Heret-Kau - She who is Above the Spirits
Heryshef, Ruler of the Riverbanks
Heset Goddess of Plenty
Hetepes-Sekhus - An Eye of Re
Hike God of Magic and Medicine
Horus King of the Gods on Earth
Hu God of the Spoken Word
Iabet, Cleanser of Re, Personification of the East
Ihy - The Child God
Imhotep Lord of Science and Thought
Ipy (Opet), A Mother of Osiris
Isis Queen of the Gods
Iusaas - Creator Goddess
Kabechet Helper of Anubis
Kek and Kauket, Deities of Darkness, Obscurity and Night
Khenmu The Great Potter
Kherty - Ram-headed God
Kephri The Great Scarab
Khonsu God of the Moon
Maat Lady of Truth and Order
Mafdet Goddess of Scorpions and Snakes
Mahaf - The Ferryman
Mahes The Lord of the Massacre
Male Child Gods of Egypt
Mandulis - The Lower Nubian Sun God
Mehen Defender of the Sun Boat
Mehet-Weret - Cow Goddess of the Sky
Menhit Lion-headed War Goddess
Mertseger Guardian of the Valley of the Kings
Meskhenet - Goddess of Childbrith
Mihos - Son of Bastet
Min God of Fertility
Montu, Warrior and Solar God
Mut Grandmother of the Gods
Nefertem Lord of the Sunrise
Nehebkau, the God who Joined the Ka to the Body
Nekhbet Goddess of the Power of Kings
Neith Goddess of War and Funerals
Nephthys Lady of the Wings
Nun and Naunet Gods of Chaos and Water
Nut Goddess of the Firmament
The Ogdoad The Primordial Creation Gods
Onuris The War God
Osiris Lord of the Dead
Pakhet The Strength of Woman
Panebtawy - The Child God
Peteese and Pihor - Brother Gods
Ptah The Creator
Qadesh - Goddess of Esctasy and Sexual Pleasure
Re (Ra) The Sun God
Renenutet Goddess of the Harvest
Reshep - The Syrian War God
Sah and Sopdet (Sothis) The Astral God and Goddess
Satet Goddess of the Inundation
Satis Guardian of the Borders
Sebiumeker - Meroitic God of Procreation
Sefkhet-Abwy - Goddess of Writing and Temple Libraries
Seker The Resurrected Osiris
Sekhmet The Eye of Ra
Sepa - Centipede God
Serapis the Composit God
Serqet (Selkis) Scorpion Goddess
Seshat Goddess of writing, measurements
Set God of Evil
Shay - Personified Destiny
Shesmetet - Leonine Goddess
Shesmu Demon god of the Win Press
Shu God of the Air and Sky
Sia - The Perceptive Mind
Sobek Guard of the Gods
Sons of Horus Gods of the Viscera and the Canopic Jars
Sopedu - The Border Patrol God
Ta-Bitjet - A Wife of Horus
Tasenetnofret - The Good Sister
Taweret Goddess Demoness of Birth
Tayet - Goddess of Weaving
Tefnut Goddess of Moisture
Tatenen - "Father of Gods" and the God of the Rising Earth
Thoth God of Wisdom
Wadj Wer - The Pregnant God
Wadjet The Serpent Goddess
Weneg - Ancient Son of Re
Wepwawet (Upuaut) The Opener of the Ways
Wosret - Goddess of Thebes
Yah - Another Moon God
Yamm - God of the Sea

There are even a few gods not listed that I know of separately and as I go through the list I will add them and their associations as well. This thread almost got lost in the shuffle of arguement and needs to be near the surface in order to properly correlate the Gods of each culture to form a more solid picture of Atlantis.

IP: 64.136.27.227

Chronos
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Posts: 497
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Registered: Jul 2004

posted 08-24-2004 13:18     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Thank you, Cleasterwood. I'm aware that this particular list of the gods was a bit lacking. I was primarily interested in the other terms the glossary gave the definition to.

I've been looking for a comparison between Egyptian and Greek gods to help with your own research, to no luck so far. I'm afraid there's much more on the Internet concerning the Greek gods than those of the Egyptians!

Here's some links to the Egyptians you might find interesting:
http://dir.yahoo.com/Society_and_Culture/Mythology_and_Folklore/Mythology/Egyptian/

IP: 165.189.130.2

cleasterwood
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Posts: 428
From: FL US
Registered: Aug 2003

posted 08-25-2004 05:53     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
You're welcome Chronos. I think what we have to do to get a good comparison between the two parthenons is list all the gods with their attributes as I have done with the Egyptians and then compile the Greek list, which I'm working on doing now. And then, we have to use our best judgement to correlate the two by utilizing the descriptions as the main comparison points. I think this is the only way to get a comparison list because as you said, I can't find anything on the internet about it either. So as researchers it's our duty to compile these lists so it's available to all. That's what I intend on doing here. This way we can look for discrepancies in order to fix them and apply them to Atlantis.

IP: 64.136.27.227

Chronos
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Posts: 497
From: various
Registered: Jul 2004

posted 08-26-2004 08:28     Click Here to See the Profile for Chronos     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Cleasterwood,

I'm also interested in finding something that gives the exact time periods that the Egyptian gods were said to rule. Do you know of any website that does that? Thank you.

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cleasterwood
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Posts: 428
From: FL US
Registered: Aug 2003

posted 08-26-2004 17:38     Click Here to See the Profile for cleasterwood     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Chronos, I know I've got one somewhere. It is in accordance with the Mantheos list as well as others. I thought it was this page, but it doesn't list the dates. http://www.atlantisquest.com/Writings.html
I guess we know that's my favorite link don't we? Here's a few more, I'm still looking for the one with dates attributed to the kings. http://www.atlantisquest.com/Manetho.html http://www.atlantisquest.com/palermo.html

No one seems to attribute dates to these, just order of rule. It's better than nothing I guess.

IP: 64.136.27.227

atalante
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Posts: 1301
From: Tucson AZ USA
Registered: Apr 2003

posted 08-26-2004 21:31     Click Here to See the Profile for atalante     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Here is an interesting link. http://www.crystalinks.com/egypt2.html

It begins by saying that Hephaestus/Ptah ruled in an unspecified place for 9000 years. I think you will agree, this number 9000 is in agreement with what Critias mentions about Athena and Hephaestus ruling for 9000 years.

Then the remainder of the "Old Chronicle" kings ruled for lesser time periods, but none less than 300 years. In regard to baby Horus, we are told that Horus had to be 350 years old before he had matured emough to serve as king.

The numbers for this era could be understood as "months", rather than years.

IP: 205.188.116.13

Helios
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Posts: 325
From: Rhodes (an island near Cyprus)
Registered: Jun 2004

posted 08-27-2004 00:36     Click Here to See the Profile for Helios     Edit/Delete Message   Reply w/Quote
Excellent link, Atalante! Here is some material from it I thought we might find interesting:


The first God was Ptah who ruled for 9,000 years.
Ra the Sun God, ruled for about 1,000 years.
Shu followed him ruling 700 years.
Geb follwed him ruling 500 years.
Osiris ruled 450 before his evil brother Seth killed and
dismembered him.
Seth ruled for 350 until Osirus' son Horus could do battle
with him. These battles are chronocled in Egypt's history.
Horus managed to managed to wrestle the throne from Seth.
There was a pantheon of extraterrestrails Gods who tried
to decide who should take over the Egyptian rule. They chose
Horus who ruled for 300 years. Those 7 Gods, ruled a total
of 12,300 years.

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